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Have we misinterpreted the study of Hoogerheide et al. (1971)?
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4894-7944
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9172-858X
2012 (English)In: Optometry and Vision Science, ISSN 1040-5488, E-ISSN 1538-9235, Vol. 89, no 8, 1235-1237 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In 1971, Rempt et al. reported peripheral refraction patterns (skiagrams) along the horizontal visual field in 442 people. Later in the same year, Hoogerheide et al. used skiagrams in combination with medical records to relate skiagrams in emmetropes and hyperopes to progression of myopia in young adults. The two articles have spurred interest in peripheral refraction in the past decade. We challenge the understanding that their articles provide evidence that the peripheral refraction pattern along the horizontal visual field is predictive of whether or not a person develops myopia. First, although it has been generally assumed that the skiagrams were measured before the changes in refraction were monitored, Hoogerheide et al. did not state that this was the case. Second, if the skiagrams were obtained at an initial examination and given the likely rates of recruitment and successful completion of training, the study must have taken place during a period of 10 to 15 years; it is much more likely that Hoogerheide et al. measured the skiagrams in a shorter period. Third, despite there being many more emmetropes and hyperopes in the Rempt et al. article than there are in the Hoogerheide et al. article, the number of people in two types of "at risk" skiagrams is greater in the latter; this is consistent with the central refraction status being reported from an earlier time by Hoogerheide et al. than by Rempt et al. In summary, we believe that the skiagrams reported by Hoogerheide et al. were taken at a later examination, after myopia did or did not occur, and that the refraction data from the initial examination were retrieved from the medical archives. Thus, this work does not provide evidence that peripheral refraction pattern is indicative of the likely development of myopia.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 89, no 8, 1235-1237 p.
Keyword [en]
emmetropization, hyperopia, myopia, myopia progression, peripheral refraction, skiagrams
National Category
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-101544DOI: 10.1097/OPX.0b013e318264f2d1ISI: 000307476600019ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84864716642OAI: diva2:549691
Swedish Research Council, 621-2011-4094

QC 20120905

Available from: 2012-09-05 Created: 2012-08-30 Last updated: 2013-03-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Peripheral Vision: Adaptive Optics and Psychophysics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peripheral Vision: Adaptive Optics and Psychophysics
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is about our peripheral vision. Peripheral vision is poor compared to central vision, due to both neural and optical factors. The optical factors include astigmatism, defocus and higher order aberrations consisting mainly of coma. Neurally, the density of ganglion cells decreases towards the periphery, which limits the sampling density. The questions that this thesis attempts to answer are how much and under which circumstances correction of optical errors can improve peripheral vision. For this, an adaptive optics system has been constructed with a wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror working in closed loop to perform real-time correction of optical errors. To investigate vision, psychophysical routines utilizing Bayesian methods have been evaluated and modified for peripheral vision to handle the presence of aliasing, fixation instability and rapid fatigue.

We found that correcting both refractive errors and higher order aberrations improved peripheral low-contrast resolution acuity. \\

We looked at two specific topics in peripheral vision research in particular: Central visual field loss and myopia development. Persons with central visual field loss have to rely on their remaining peripheral vision, and it is of great interest to understand whether optical correction can offer them any benefits. In a case study on a single subject, we found meaningful improvements in vision with both optimized refractive correction as well as additional benefits with aberration correction. These improvements were larger than for comparable healthy subjects with a similar magnitude of aberrations. When it comes to myopia development, an interesting hypothesis is that peripheral optics affect and guide the emmetropization process. We have found an asymmetric depth of field in the periphery for myopic subjects, caused by their higher order aberrations, and presented a model on how this asymmetry may influence the emmetropization process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. xiii, 72 p.
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2013:08
National Category
Other Physics Topics
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-120077 (URN)978-91-7501-698-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-04-19, Sal FD5, AlbaNova Universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)

QC 20130327

Available from: 2013-03-27 Created: 2013-03-27 Last updated: 2013-04-12Bibliographically approved

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