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Impacts of Intelligent Transportation Systems on Users' Mobility:  A Case Study Analysis
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

People have many reasons to be mobile, from day-to-day activities involving work, studies, and family, to maintaining participation in society, health, and quality of life. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is increasingly being deployed in the transportation context to improve individuals' mobility; for example via information provision. Advanced use of ICT in transportation is commonly referred to as Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS).

Despite many opportunities for ITS services to enhance personal mobility, the collection and use of movement and activity data also poses challenges, as it facilitates easier access to more information for people to use, but about them as well. Knowledge about users' perceptions of advantages and disadvantages (for example assurance and privacy) associated with the use of ITS services is limited. Even less is known regarding to what degree their perceptions influence their acceptance of the services or their behavior.

The aim of this thesis project is to gather empirical interview and survey data from multiple user groups in order to learn more about the factors impacting users' attitudes towards ITS services. In exploring not only demographic factors, but also the potential positive and negative impacts from the users' perspective, this project attempts to paint a more holistic view of the issues surrounding the possibilities for ITS to enhance mobility.

From the two case studies presented in this thesis, results indicate that respondents are pro-technology and are not highly concerned about privacy in general, but other ethical issues serve to shed light on the situations of different user groups. In the first case study with visually impaired individuals, the ability to lead an autonomous and independent life is a strong driver for the acceptance of a pedestrian navigation system, which the users themselves would choose to use. While the participants are generally optimistic about the possibilities of using ITS to enhance their mobility, their comments illustrate that ICT development does not necessarily result in ethically sound, universally accessible technology, and that a coordinated effort on multiple fronts is vital in addressing users' needs and meeting broader social goals such as social inclusion and the accessibility of transportation, technology, and information.

In the second case study with professional heavy goods vehicle drivers and their employers, the drivers are in a dependent (employee) position and have less personal control over the use of ITS services in the vehicles. The employers are perceived as the greater beneficiaries of the services, which could be linked to the systematic lack of feedback to the drivers. Generally, the respondents trust the employers to protect the drivers' privacy. However, there also exist gaps in organizational communication regarding data gathering and handling practices as well as in expected versus stated behavior modification as a result of workplace monitoring. As employees are not normally able to provide informed consent due to their dependent position, recommendations for organizations include performing comprehensive impact assessments, engaging in an ongoing dialogue with employees, and providing an opt-out option in order to move towards a more informed consent.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. , ix, 10 p.
Series
Trita-TSC-LIC, ISSN 1653-445X ; 12:007
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-102327ISBN: 978-91-85539-93-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-102327DiVA: diva2:552342
Presentation
2012-10-04, E53, Osquars backe 14, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note

QC 20120917

Available from: 2012-09-17 Created: 2012-09-13 Last updated: 2013-04-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Mobility-Enhancing ICT from an Ethical Perspective: The Case of a Navigation System for Visually Impaired Persons
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobility-Enhancing ICT from an Ethical Perspective: The Case of a Navigation System for Visually Impaired Persons
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study is to empirically investigate the case of visually impaired persons and the possible effects of a tailored pedestrian navigation system on their mobility.  Interview results indicate that with the provision of detailed information about the built environment and public transportation, positive potential effects include an increased ability to travel alone, to travel in unplanned and unfamiliar situations, and to prioritize public transportation use over the use of special transportation services.  In the broader sense, the system may also serve an integrity enhancing function by improving the possibility of leading an independent and autonomous life.  On the other hand, as with all ICT with positioning and monitoring capabilities, its use also poses ethical challenges and may negatively impact privacy.  Privacy perceptions are highly contextual, but the participants’ responses in this context do not indicate high levels of concern for data misuse or being tracked through their data.  This does not, however, translate into an absence of concern over technology’s potential negative impacts on personal integrity.  As the participants’ comments illustrate, ICT development does not necessarily result in ethically sound, universally accessible technology.  While the participants are generally optimistic about the possibilities of using ICT to enhance their mobility, they also emphasize that ICT is not the magic bullet. As such, this study serves to remind us that a coordinated effort on multiple fronts is vital in addressing users’ needs and meeting broader social goals such as social inclusion and the accessibility of transportation, technology, and information.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington, D.C.: , 2013
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-102325 (URN)
Conference
92nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
Note

QC 20160502

Available from: 2012-09-13 Created: 2012-09-13 Last updated: 2016-05-02Bibliographically approved
2. Privacy in the Eighteen-Wheel Workplace
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Privacy in the Eighteen-Wheel Workplace
(English)In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study is to investigate the situation of professional Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) drivers in the mobile workplace; in particular the drivers’ perceptions of privacy regarding the positioning services in their vehicles in contrast to the perceptions of their employers (road haulage companies).  Although mobile technologies are increasingly blurring the distinctions between places of work and non-work, most research on workplace privacy has focused on the traditional office setting.  The empirical interview results indicate that most respondents are pro-technology and trust the employer to protect driver privacy and HGV data.  However, the results also reveal significant gaps in knowledge about what HGV data is collected, in communication between employers and employees regarding data gathering and handling practices, and in expected versus actual behavior modification as a result of workplace monitoring.  The employers are perceived as the greatest beneficiaries of the in-vehicle positioning systems and services, which could be linked to the systematic lack of feedback to the drivers.  As employees are not normally able to provide informed consent due to their dependent position, recommendations for organizations include performing comprehensive impact assessments, engaging in an ongoing dialogue with employees, and providing an opt-out option in order to move towards a more informed consent.

National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-102324 (URN)
Note

QS 2013

Available from: 2012-09-13 Created: 2012-09-13 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. Assessing the Benefits of Intelligent Truck Parking
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the Benefits of Intelligent Truck Parking
2013 (English)In: International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research, ISSN 1868-8659Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this paper is to identify and analyze important factors related to the benefits of Intelligent Truck Parking (ITP) for different stakeholders (including the end users) in the context of Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) transport. Previous work has neither focused on different types of ITP benefits for HGVs, nor on the end user perspective.  This article identifies benefit areas and attributes as well as stakeholder groups relevant for HGV transport based on a review of previous research and projects.  These benefit areas and attributes are theoretically assessed and compared for different stakeholders using multi-criteria analysis.  Additionally, interview results of Swedish drivers’ and companies’ perceptions of ITP are presented.  Comparing results of the interviews with the theoretical assessment indicates that the end users may not perceive ITP as highly beneficial although they theoretically benefit the most.  Companies, particularly national haulage companies, express a low willingness to pay for ITP.  Both the theoretical assessment and interviews show the potential for ITP to deliver different benefits to different actors across the transport chain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2013
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-102323 (URN)10.1007/s13177-012-0055-3 (DOI)2-s2.0-84877788119 (Scopus ID)
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note

QC 20130515

Available from: 2012-09-13 Created: 2012-09-13 Last updated: 2013-05-15Bibliographically approved

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