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Low-Power Secondary Access to the TV and Aeronautical Bands
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The avalanche in mobile data consumption represents a big challenge for mobile operators. The efficient use of radio resources, e.g. technology, infrastructure and spectrum, is needed to meet the new capacity requirement in the mobile networks. This thesis aims at quantifying the real-life spectrum opportunities for deploying a massive low-power indoor secondary system. Our studies have mainly focused in two frequency bands: the digital TV and the aeronautical band. Indoor secondary access to these bands presents different technical challenges: Limited adjacent channel rejection capabilities and no information about the location of the primary receivers are key challenges in the digital TV band. Instead for the aeronautical band, the control of the aggregate interference over a large area due to the high sensitivity levels and the extremely low permissible outage probability at the primary system are the key issues for secondary access.

We have proposed a research methodology for determining the availability of spectrum opportunities in both frequency bands: digital TV and aeronautical band. Our methodology mainly emphasizes on establishing the realistic limits of tolerable interference at the primary, devising practical sharing schemes and determining the operational conditions and constraints for the secondary system. Based on our numerical results and measurement campaigns, we conclude that there is significant amount of spectrum opportunities for the deployment of massive low-power indoor secondary access in the digital TV and aeronautical band. The availability of spectrum opportunities highly depends on the sharing mechanisms, the primary protection criteria and the secondary system parameters. Future work should consider how the secondary users share the available spectrum in order to optimize the performance of secondary system in realistic scenarios. Another interesting investigation is the business viability assessment of secondary access in both frequency bands.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. , viii, 42 p.
Series
Trita-ICT-COS, ISSN 1653-6347 ; 12:09
Keyword [en]
Secondary Access, Interference Management, TV band, Aeronautical Band
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-103045OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-103045DiVA: diva2:558112
Presentation
2012-10-12, C2 - Electrum 1, Isafjordsgatan 26, Kista, 15:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
ICT - The Next Generation
Note

QC 20121002

Available from: 2012-10-02 Created: 2012-10-01 Last updated: 2013-04-15Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A model for Aggregate Adjacent Channel Interference in TV White Space
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A model for Aggregate Adjacent Channel Interference in TV White Space
2011 (English)In: IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 2011, 1-5 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The presence of white spaces and spectrum holes in the TV bands represents potential opportunities for alleviating the apparent spectrum scarcity. Opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) has been proposed for the secondary user's operation and the main concern is the harmful interference that secondary systems could cause to the primary receivers. Existing studies have focused on establishing the limits for co-channel and adjacent channel interference when only one adjacent channel is used by a single secondary user. This paper presents a characterization of the aggregate adjacent channel interference (AACI) when different adjacent channels are simultaneously accessed by multiple secondary users or white space devices (WSDs). An analytical expression is proposed to approximate the limits of the tolerable AACI. Our model states that not only the interference received in each adjacent channel should stay below the corresponding threshold for that particular channel, but also the weighted sum of the total adjacent channel interference power should be kept below a certain threshold. Measurement campaigns show the cumulative effect of the adjacent channel interference (ACI) when multiple WSDs access multiple adjacent channels at the same time. The proposed analytical expression for AACI closely matches the measurement results.

Series
IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, ISSN 1550-2252
Keyword
white space, opportunistic spectrum access, adjacent channel interference, measurements
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48302 (URN)10.1109/VETECS.2011.5956237 (DOI)000295405800122 ()2-s2.0-80051981578 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-8332-7 (ISBN)
Conference
2011 IEEE 73rd Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC2011-Spring. Budapest, Hungary, 15 May 2011 - 18 May 2011
Projects
QUASAR
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework ProgrammeWireless@kth
Note

QC 20150706

Available from: 2011-11-17 Created: 2011-11-17 Last updated: 2015-07-06Bibliographically approved
2. Short Range White Space Utilization in Broadcast Systems for Indoor Environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Short Range White Space Utilization in Broadcast Systems for Indoor Environments
2010 (English)In: IEEE Symposium on New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN), IEEE , 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As Digital Television Broadcasting spreads over theworld, existing (and more) TV channels can be distributed in lessspectrum in the spectrum traditionally allocated to TVbroadcasting. This freed spectrum is also referred to as the "DigitalDividend" and its use has been debated around the world. Inaddition, there is also a debate about the potential use of the “whitespace” within the TV-bands. This is due to the sparse frequencyplanning with large interference margins, which is typical in widearea broadcasting. Various technical approaches using Opportunistic Spectrum Access(OSA) have been proposed for unlicensed “white space” access tothe TV bands. Most of previous studies have focused on spectrumsensing, i.e. detecting “free channels”, where secondary users,utilizing White Space Devices (WSD) could avoid causing harmfulinterference to the TV receivers. However, interference caused byWSD is not only limited to co-channel interference. In particular, inshort-range scenarios, the adjacent channel interference is anequally severe problem. Assessing the feasibility of WSDs in shortrangeindoor scenarios, taking more interference mechanisms intoaccount is the objective of this paper. An Indoor home scenariowith Cable, Rooftop antenna and Set-top antenna reception ofDVB-T, has been analyzed. The spectrum reuse opportunities forWSDs have been determined, using the number of channels whereit is possible to transmit without causing harmful interference toDVB-T receivers as performance measure. Simulation results showthat the number of available channels for indoor unlicensed whitespace transmission appears to be significant in most of the studiedscenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2010
Keyword
White space, Digital Television Broadcasting, White Space Devices, Opportunistic Spectrum Access
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-62724 (URN)10.1109/DYSPAN.2010.5457866 (DOI)2-s2.0-77953228395 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Symposium on New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum, 2010 IEEE
Note
QC 20120202Available from: 2012-02-02 Created: 2012-01-20 Last updated: 2014-05-19Bibliographically approved
3. Experimental Verification of Indoor TV White Space Opportunity Prediction Model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Verification of Indoor TV White Space Opportunity Prediction Model
2010 (English)In: 2010 5th International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications, CROWNCom 2010, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Recent work has demonstrated that the underutilized spectrum in the Digital Television Bands, commonly referred to as TV White Space (TVWS), is a prime candidate for opportunistic spectrum access (OSA). However, a systematic assessment of the availability of this spectrum for secondary transmission was, until very recently, lacking. In a TVWS opportunity prediction model to estimate indoor secondary usage probability was proposed. In this paper we aim at verifying this model by means of measurement campaigns in both laboratory and real indoor environments. The match between the predictions from the simulation models in and measurement results suggest that the model provides a realistic evaluation of the opportunities in TVWS for low power indoor secondary usage.

Keyword
white space, digital television broadcasting, opportunistic spectrum access
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48305 (URN)10.4108/ICST.CROWNCOM2010.9286 (DOI)2-s2.0-77958168179 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-5885-1 (ISBN)
Conference
2010 5th International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications, CROWNCom 2010. Cannes, France 9 June 2010 - 11 June 2010
Projects
QUASAR
Funder
Wireless@kthEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Note

QC 20150710

Available from: 2011-11-17 Created: 2011-11-17 Last updated: 2015-07-10Bibliographically approved
4. On the requirements of secondary access to 960-1215 MHz aeronautical spectrum
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the requirements of secondary access to 960-1215 MHz aeronautical spectrum
2011 (English)In: 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks, DySPAN 2011, IEEE , 2011, 371-379 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we investigate the spectrum sharing requirements of secondary access to 960-1215 MHz band which is primarily allocated to aeronautical usage. Primary system of interest is distance measuring equipments (DME) aiding navigation of airplanes. We consider a scenario where indoor femtocells share the spectrum as secondary users. For the protection of the primary system, each secondary user decides whether to transmit or not depending on an interference threshold established by a central network. We provide a simple mathematical framework for analyzing the aggregate interference generated by multiple secondary users spreading in a large area. Requirement for the secondary access is established in terms of the size of exclusion region depending on the density of secondary users. Numerical results suggest the use of adjacent DME channel is required for a dense deployment of the secondary users. We discuss the challenges and implementation issues of practical secondary access, and suggest the directions of further research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2011
Keyword
DME channel;aeronautical spectrum;aeronautical usage;aggregate interference;airplane navigation;distance measuring equipment;frequency 960 MHz to 1215 MHz;indoor femtocell;interference threshold;mathematical framework;primary system;secondary access;spectrum sharing requirement;aircraft communication;aircraft navigation;femtocellular radio;indoor radio;radio spectrum management;radiofrequency interference;wireless channels;
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-76143 (URN)10.1109/DYSPAN.2011.5936226 (DOI)2-s2.0-79960673764 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2011 IEEE International Symposium on Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks, DySPAN 2011. Aachen. 3 May 2011 - 6 May 2011
Projects
QUASAR
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 248303Wireless@kth
Note

QC 20120207

Available from: 2012-02-06 Created: 2012-02-06 Last updated: 2016-04-26Bibliographically approved
5. On the Feasibility of Indoor BroadbandSecondary Access to the 960-1215 MHz Aeronautical Spectrum
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Feasibility of Indoor BroadbandSecondary Access to the 960-1215 MHz Aeronautical Spectrum
2013 (English)In: Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies, ISSN 2161-3915, Vol. 24, no 7-8, 724-733 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we analyse the feasibility of indoor broadband service provisioning using secondary spectrum access to the 960–1215 MHz band, primarily allocated to the distance measuring equipment (DME) system for aeronautical navigation. We propose a practical secondary sharing scheme customised to the characteristics of the DME. Because the primary system performs a safety-of-life functionality, protection from harmful interference becomes extremely critical. The proposed scheme controls aggregate interference by imposing an individual interference threshold on the secondary users. We examine the feasibility of large scale secondary access in terms of the transmission probability of the secondary users that keeps the probability of harmful interference below a given limit. Uncertainties in the estimation of propagation loss and DME location affect the feasibility of the secondary access. Numerical results show that a large number of secondary users are able to operate in adjacent DME channels without harming the primary system even with limited accuracy on the estimation of the propagation loss.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2013
Keyword
Secondary spectrum access, distance measuring equipment, aggregate interference
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-103049 (URN)10.1002/ett.2701 (DOI)000327423100010 ()2-s2.0-84896787855 (Scopus ID)
Projects
QUASAR
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework ProgrammeWireless@kth
Note

QC 20131107

Available from: 2012-10-02 Created: 2012-10-02 Last updated: 2014-05-19Bibliographically approved
6. Availability Assessment of Secondary Usage in Aeronautical Spectrum
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Availability Assessment of Secondary Usage in Aeronautical Spectrum
2013 (English)In: 2013 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), IEEE Communications Society, 2013, 4510-4515 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we provide a quantitative assessment of the available spectrum for massive indoor broadband secondary access in the 960-1215 MHz band, primarily allocated to the distance measuring equipment (DME) systems. We employ a practical sharing scheme where the secondary users share the DME spectrum via geo-location database and spectrum sensing. Since the DME system performs a safety-of-life functionality, protection from harmful interference becomes extremely critical. A DME channel is considered available in a certain time and location if the secondary users, under the applied sharing scheme, are able to successfully access the channel without violating the primary protection criteria. We analyze the impact of the secondary system parameters and the potential uncertainties in the applied sharing mechanism on the availability in the DME band. Numerical results show that at least 30% of the total DME band (57 MHz out of 190 MHz) can be available for a dense low-power indoor secondary network, even if conservative primary system protection criteria and high levels of uncertainty are considered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Communications Society, 2013
Series
IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference. Proceedings, ISSN 1525-3511
Keyword
Availability, distance measuring equipment, aggregate interference
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-103050 (URN)10.1109/WCNC.2013.6555305 (DOI)000326048104103 ()2-s2.0-84881589011 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-5937-5 (ISBN)
Conference
2013 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC 2013; Shanghai; China; 7 April 2013 through 10 April 2013
Projects
QUASAR
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework ProgrammeWireless@kth
Note

QC 20131107

Available from: 2012-10-02 Created: 2012-10-02 Last updated: 2014-05-19Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
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  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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Output format
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