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Multirecycling of Pu, Am and Cm in BWR
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6082-8913
2013 (English)In: Annals of Nuclear Energy, ISSN 0306-4549, E-ISSN 1873-2100, Vol. 58, 255-267 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have investigated neutronics aspects of multirecycling of Pu, Am and Cm in BWRs, employing three uranium and three thorium-supported transmutation fuels. Our results show, that thorium-based cores allow for higher shares of MA in the fuel and thereby higher MA incineration without encountering a positive total void worth at any point of the multirecycling. In the uranium-based configuration the total void worth sets the limit on the MA share around 2.45%. The thorium-based fuels also exhibit a stronger Doppler feedback and somewhat degraded reactivity as compared to uranium-fuels. The alpha-heating in the fuel reaches equilibrium after six cycles, maintaining values of 24-31 W/kg(FUEL) in the uranium-based configurations and 32-37 W/kg(FUEL) in the thorium-based configurations. The neutron emission keeps rising through the multirecycling, the maximum value reached in the XV cycle ranges from 1.4 x 10(6) to 1.7 x 10(6) n/s/g for uranium fuels and 2 x 10(6) n/s/g for the thorium-based fuels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pergamon Press, 2013. Vol. 58, 255-267 p.
Keyword [en]
Transmutation, Am, Cm, TRU, BWR
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Other Physics Topics
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-103091DOI: 10.1016/j.anucene.2013.03.024ISI: 000320481600033ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84876270150OAI: diva2:558576

QC 20130729. Updated from submitted to published.

Available from: 2012-10-04 Created: 2012-10-04 Last updated: 2013-07-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Advanced fuels for thermal spectrum reactors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Advanced fuels for thermal spectrum reactors
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The advanced fuels investigated in this thesis comprise fuels non− conventional in their design/form (TRISO), their composition (high content of plutonium and minor actinides) or their use in a reactor type, in which they have not been used before (e.g. nitride fuel in BWR). These fuels come with a promise of improved characteristics such as safe, high temperature operation, spent fuel transmutation or fuel cycle extension, for which reasons their potentialis worth assessment and investigation. Their possible use also brings about various challenges, out of which some were addressed in this thesis. TRISO particle fuels with their superior retention abilities enable safe, high−temperature operation. Their combination with molten salt in the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) concept moreover promises high operating temperature at low pressure, but it requires a careful selection of the cooling salt and the TRISO dimensions to achieve adequate safety characteristic, incl. a negative feedback to voiding. We show that an AHTR cooled with FLiBe may safely operate with both Pu oxide and enriched U oxide fuels. Pu and Minor Actinides (MA) bearing fuels may be used in BWR for transmutation through multirecycling; however, the allowable amounts of Pu and MA are limited due to the degraded feedback to voiding or low reactivity.We showed that the main positive contribution to the void effect in the fuelswith Pu and MA content of around 11 to 15% consist of the decreased thermalcapture probability in Pu-240, Pu-239 and Am-241 and increased fast and resonance fission probability of U-238, Pu239 and Pu-240. The total void worthmoreover increases during multirecycling, limiting the allowable amount ofMA to 2.45% in uranium−based fuels. An alternative, thorium−based fuel allows for 3.45% MA without entering the positive voiding regime at any point of the multirecycling. The increased alpha−heating associated with the use of transmutation fuels, is at level 24−31 W/kgFUEL in the uranium based fuels and 32−37 W/kgFUEL in the thorium−based configurations. The maximum value of the neutron emission, reached in the last cycle, is 1.7·106 n/s/g and 2·106 n/s/g for uranium and for thorium−based fuels, respectively. Replacing the standard UO2 fuel with higher−uranium density UN orUNZrO2 fuels in BWR shows potential for an increase of the in-core fuelresidence time by about 1.4 year. This implies 1.4% higher availability of the plant. With the nitride fuels, the total void worth increases and the efficiency of the control rods and burnable poison deteriorates, but no major neutronics issue has been identified. The use of nitride fuels in the BWR environment is conditioned by their stability in hot steam. Possible methods for stabilizing nitride fuels in water and steam at 300◦ C were suggested in a recent patentapplication.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. xii, 55, p.
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2012:73
BWR, transmutation, thorium, Pu, MA, Am, Cm, AHTR, thermal, reactor, neutron
National Category
Other Physics Topics
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-103085 (URN)
Public defence
2012-10-12, FA32, AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacke 21, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)

QC 20121004

Available from: 2012-10-04 Created: 2012-10-03 Last updated: 2012-10-04Bibliographically approved

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