Nanocomposites made from nanoporous cellulose fibre
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
This thesis explores how to use the dry nanoporous structure of cellulosic fibres in new types of composite materials. A large effort was also given on how to correctly characterize the structure of fibres where the wet structure has been preserved also in the dry state.
Delignified wood fibres have an open fibrillar structure in their water-swollen state. In the present work, this open fibrillar structure was preserved in the dry state by performing a liquid exchange procedure and the samples were thereafter carefully dried with Ar(g). The samples of never-dried TEMPO-oxidized dissolving pulp had a specific surface area of 130 m2/g in the dry state, as measured using the Brunauer, Emmet, and Teller (BET) Nitrogen gas adsorption method. This open structure was also revealed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM).
The water-swollen and dry open structures were thoroughly characterized for various pulps. A new method for determining the pore size of water-swollen delignified cellulosic fibres is presented. By combining the results from solid state nuclear magnetic resonance NMR, measuring the specific surface area [m2/g] in the water-swollen state, with fibre saturation point (FSP), measuring the pore volume of fibres in water-swollen state [mass water/mass fibre], the average pore size can be determined without the need of assuming a certain pore geometry.
The dry nanoporous structure was then used as a scaffold for in-situ polymerization, to demonstrate how the properties of the fibrils in the fibre wall can be exploited without the need to disintegrate the fibre wall. Both poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(butylacrylate) (PBA) were successfully used as the polymeric matrix, and both nanocomposites (i.e., fibre/PMMA and fibre/PBA) had a fibre content of approximately 20 w%. The structure of the composites was characterized using SEM and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) operated in the phase imaging mode. The AFM results indicate that the cellulose aggregates and polymeric matrix were successfully mixed on a nanoscale, creating a nanocomposite of interpenetrating polymer molecules and cellulose fibrils, rather than a microcomposite, when using microscopic cellulose fibres. The water absorption capacity of the nanocomposites was reduced significantly, indicating that almost all nanopores in the fibre wall were successfully filled with matrix polymer. The mechanical properties were investigated, showing the importance of nanosized reinforcement compared to fibres of micrometer size.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. , 28 p.
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2012:43
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology Materials Chemistry
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-103342ISBN: 978-91-7501-479-1OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-103342DiVA: diva2:559814
2012-10-26, K1, Teknikringen 56, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Malmström Jonsson, Eva, ProfessorWestman, Gunnar
Wågberg, Lars, Professor
QC 201210112012-10-112012-10-102012-10-11Bibliographically approved
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