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Modeling of peak-to-peak core switching noise, output impedance, and decoupling capacitance along a vertical chain of power distribution TSV pairs
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
2012 (English)In: Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, ISSN 0925-1030, E-ISSN 1573-1979, Vol. 73, no 1, 311-328 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article we propose an efficient and accurate model to estimate peak-to-peak core switching noise, caused by simultaneous switching of logic loads along a vertical chain of power distribution TSV pairs in a 3D stack of dies interconnected through TSVs. The proposed model is accurate with only a 2–3% difference in peak-to-peak core switching noise as compared to the Ansoft Nexxim4.1 equivalent model. The proposed model is 3–4 times faster than Ansoft Nexxim4.1 and uses two times less memory as compared to the Ansoft Nexxim4.1 equivalent model. In this article we also thoroughly establish design guidelines for almost flat output impedance magnitude at each stage of a vertical chain of power distribution TSV pairs to realize a resonance free scenario over a wide operating frequency range. We also establish decoupling capacitance design guidelines based on the optimum output impedance and critically damped supply voltage for the core logic for each stage of a vertical chain of power distribution TSV pairs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 73, no 1, 311-328 p.
Keyword [en]
Core switching noise, 3D stack of dies, Vertical chain, Power distribution TSV pairs
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-103556DOI: 10.1007/s10470-011-9797-0ISI: 000309130700032Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84866731975OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-103556DiVA: diva2:560460
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-ICT-215030
Note

QC 20121015

Available from: 2012-10-15 Created: 2012-10-15 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Core Switching Noise for On-Chip 3D Power Distribution Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Core Switching Noise for On-Chip 3D Power Distribution Networks
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Reducing the interconnect size with each technology node and increasing speed with each generation increases IR-drop and Ldi/dt noise. In addition to this, the drive for more integration increases the average current requirement for modern ULSI design. Simultaneous switching of core logic blocks and I/O drivers produces large current transients due to power distribution network parasitics at high clock frequency. The current transients are injected into the power distribution planes thereby inducing noise in the supply voltage. The part of the noise that is caused by switching of the internal logic load is core switching noise. The core logic switches at much higher speed than driver speed whereas the package inductance is less than the on-chip inductance in modern BGA packages. The core switching noise is currently gaining more attention for three-dimensional integrated circuits where on-chip inductance is much higher than the board and package inductance due to smaller board, and package. The switching noise of the driver is smaller than the core switching noise due to small driver size and reduced capacitance associated with short on-board wires for three-dimensional integrated circuits. The load increases with the addition of each die. The power distribution TSV pairs to supply each extra die also introduce additional parasitic. The core switching noise may propagate through substrate and consequently through interconnecting TSVs to different dies in heterogeneous integrated system. Core switching noise may lead to decreased device drive capability, increased gate delays, logic errors, and reduced noise margins. The actual behavior of the on-chip load is not well known in the beginning of the design cycle whereas altering the design during later stages is not cost effective. The size of a three-dimensional power distribution network may reach billions of nodes with the addition of dies in a vertical stack. The traditional tools may run out of time and memory during simulation of a three-dimensional power distribution network whereas, the CAD tools for the analysis of 3D power distribution network are in the process of evolution. Compact mathematical models for the estimation of core switching noise are necessary in order to overcome the power integrity challenges associated with the 3D power distribution network design. This thesis presents three different mathematical models to estimate core switching noise for 3D stacked power distribution networks. A time-domain-based mathematical model for the estimation of design parameters of a power distribution TSV pair is also proposed. Design guidelines for the estimation of optimum decoupling capacitance based on flat output impedance are also proposed for each stage of the vertical chain of power distribution TSV pairs. A mathematical model for tradeoff between TSV resistance and amount of decoupling capacitance on each DRAM die is proposed for a 3D-DRAM-Over-Logic system. The models are developed by following a three step approach: 1) design physical model, 2) convert it to equivalent electrical model, and 3) formulate the mathematical model based on the electrical model. The accuracy, speed and memory requirement of the proposed mathematical model is compared with equivalent Ansoft Nexxim models.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. xxviii, 108 p.
Series
Trita-ICT-ECS AVH, ISSN 1653-6363 ; 12:06
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-103566 (URN)978-91-7501-519-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-11-07, Sal/Hal Sal E, Forum, KTH-ICT, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20121015

Available from: 2012-10-15 Created: 2012-10-15 Last updated: 2012-10-15Bibliographically approved

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