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Pt-Al2O3 dual layer atomic layer deposition coating in high aspect ratio nanopores
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9177-1174
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9552-4234
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8248-6670
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2013 (English)In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 24, no 1, 015602- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Functional nanoporous materials are promising for a number of applications ranging from selective biofiltration to fuel cell electrodes. This work reports the functionalization of nanoporous membranes using atomic layer deposition (ALD). ALD is used to conformally deposit platinum (Pt) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) on Pt in nanopores to form a metal-insulator stack inside the nanopore. Deposition of these materials inside nanopores allows the addition of extra functionalities to nanoporous materials such as anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. Conformal deposition of Pt on such materials enables increased performances for electrochemical sensing applications or fuel cell electrodes. An additional conformal Al2O3 layer on such a Pt film forms a metal-insulator-electrolyte system, enabling field effect control of the nanofluidic properties of the membrane. This opens novel possibilities in electrically controlled biofiltration. In this work, the deposition of these two materials on AAO membranes is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Successful process parameters are proposed for a reliable and cost-effective conformal deposition on high aspect ratio three-dimensional nanostructures. A device consisting of a silicon chip supporting an AAO membrane of 6 mm diameter and 1.3 mu m thickness with 80 nm diameter pores is fabricated. The pore diameter is reduced to 40 nm by a conformal deposition of 11 nm Pt and 9 nm Al2O3 using ALD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2013. Vol. 24, no 1, 015602- p.
Keyword [en]
nanopore, ALD, nanofluidic transistor, large surface area electrode, platinum, aluminum oxide, AAO, nanofluidics, microfluidics, lab-on-chip, loc, fuel cell
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-104073DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/24/1/015602ISI: 000312272500020Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84870523064OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-104073DiVA: diva2:562958
Projects
NanoGate
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilEU, European Research Council, 267528VINNOVA
Note

QC 20130110

Available from: 2012-10-26 Created: 2012-10-26 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. From Macro to Nano: Electrokinetic Transport and Surface Control
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From Macro to Nano: Electrokinetic Transport and Surface Control
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Today, the growing and aging population, and the rise of new global threats on human health puts an increasing demand on the healthcare system and calls for preventive actions. To make existing medical treatments more efficient and widely accessible and to prevent the emergence of new threats such as drug-resistant bacteria, improved diagnostic technologies are needed. Potential solutions to address these medical challenges could come from the development of novel lab-on-chip (LoC) for point-of-care (PoC) diagnostics.

At the same time, the increasing demand for sustainable energy calls for the development of novel approaches for energy conversion and storage systems (ECS), to which micro- and nanotechnologies could also contribute.

This thesis has for objective to contribute to these developments and presents the results of interdisciplinary research at the crossing of three disciplines of physics and engineering: electrokinetic transport in fluids, manufacturing of micro- and nanofluidic systems, and surface control and modification. By combining knowledge from each of these disciplines, novel solutions and functionalities were developed at the macro-, micro- and nanoscale, towards applications in PoC diagnostics and ECS systems.

At the macroscale, electrokinetic transport was applied to the development of a novel PoC sampler for the efficient capture of exhaled breath aerosol onto a microfluidic platform.

At the microscale, several methods for polymer micromanufacturing and surface modification were developed. Using direct photolithography in off-stoichiometry thiol-ene (OSTE) polymers, a novel manufacturing method for mold-free rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices was developed. An investigation of the photolithography of OSTE polymers revealed that a novel photopatterning mechanism arises from the off-stoichiometric polymer formulation. Using photografting on OSTE surfaces, a novel surface modification method was developed for the photopatterning of the surface energy. Finally, a novel method was developed for single-step microstructuring and micropatterning of surface energy, using a molecular self-alignment process resulting in spontaneous mimicking, in the replica, of the surface energy of the mold.

At the nanoscale, several solutions for the study of electrokinetic transport toward selective biofiltration and energy conversion were developed. A novel, comprehensive model was developed for electrostatic gating of the electrokinetic transport in nanofluidics. A novel method for the manufacturing of electrostatically-gated nanofluidic membranes was developed, using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in deep anodic alumina oxide (AAO) nanopores. Finally, a preliminary investigation of the nanopatterning of OSTE polymers was performed for the manufacturing of polymer nanofluidic devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. xix, 113 p.
Series
TRITA-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2014:020Theses in philosophy from the Royal Institute of Technology, ISSN 1650-8831
Keyword
microsystem, nanosystem, microfluidic, nanofluidic, surface modification, surface property, electrokinetics, model, simulation, material, polymer, thiol-ene, microfabrication, nanofabrication, micromanufacturing, nanomanufacturing, breath sampling, aerosol precipitation, corona discharge, electrostatic precipitation, grafting chemistry, click chemistry, nanopore, nanoporous membrane, photolithography, photopatterning, photografting, microfluidics, nanofluidics, oste, OSTE+, OSTEmer, lab-on-chip, loc, point-of-care, poc, biocompatibility, diagnostics, breath analysis, fuel cell
National Category
Nano Technology Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials Other Medical Engineering Polymer Technologies
Research subject
Electrical Engineering; Materials Science and Engineering; Physics; Medical Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144994 (URN)978-91-7595-119-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-05-23, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
RappidNanoGateNorosensor
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilEU, European Research Council
Note

QC 20140509

Available from: 2014-05-09 Created: 2014-05-05 Last updated: 2014-12-04Bibliographically approved
2. MEMS-based electrochemical gas sensors and wafer-level methods
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MEMS-based electrochemical gas sensors and wafer-level methods
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis describes novel microel ectromechanical system (MEMS) based electrochemical gas sensors and methods of fabrication.

This thesis presents the research in two parts. In the first part, a method to handle a thin silicon wafer using an electrochemically active adhesive is described. Handling of a thin silicon wafer is an important issue in 3D-IC manufacturing where through silicon vias (TSVs) is an enabling technology. Thin silicon wafers are flexible and fragile, therefore difficult to handle. In addressing the need for a reliable solution, a method based on an electrochemically active adhesive was developed. In this method, an electrochemically active adhesive was diluted and spin coated on a 100 mm diameter silicon wafer (carrier wafer) on which another silicon wafer (device wafer) was bonded. Device wafer was subjected to post processing fabrication technique such as wafer thinning. Successful debonding of the device wafer was achieved by applying a voltage between the two wafers. In another part of the research, a fabrication process for developing a functional nanoporous material using atomic layer deposition is presented. In order to realize a nanoporous electrode, a nanoporous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) substrate was used, which was functionalized with very thin layers (~ 10 nm) of platinum (Pt) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) using atomic layer deposition. Nanoporous material when used as an electrode delivers high sensitivity due to the inherent high surface area and is potentially applicable in fuel cells and in electrochemical sensing.

The second part of the thesis addresses the need for a high performance gas sensor that is applicable for asthma monitoring. Asthma is a disease related to the inflammation in the airways of the lungs and is characterized by the presence of nitric oxide gas in the exhaled breath. The gas concentration of above approximately 50 parts-per-billion indicates a likely presence of asthma. A MEMS based electrochemical gas sensor was successfully designed and developed to meet the stringent requirements needed for asthma detection. Furthermore, to enable a hand held asthma measuring instrument, a miniaturized sensor with integrated electrodes and liquid electrolyte was developed. The electrodes were assembled at a wafer-level to demonstrate the feasibility towards a high volume fabrication of the gas sensors. In addition, the designed amperometric gas sensor was successfully tested for hydrogen sulphide concentration, which is a bio marker for bad breath.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. xiv, 77 p.
Series
TRITA-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2015:030
Keyword
MEMS, gas sensors, electrochemical, nitric oxide, hydrogen sulphide, nafion, nano
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-172955 (URN)978-91-7595-661-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-10-02, Q2, Osquldas väg 10,, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 267528VINNOVASwedish Research Council
Note

QC 20150907

Available from: 2015-09-07 Created: 2015-09-03 Last updated: 2015-09-07Bibliographically approved

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Pardon, GaspardStemme, Göranvan der Wijngaart, Wouter

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