Towards Green Wireless Access Networks: Main Tradeoffs, Deployment Strategies and Measurement Methodologies
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Wireless access networks today consume 0.5 percent of the global energy. Rapidly growing demand for capacity will further increase the energy consumption. Thus, improving energy efficiency has a great importance not only for environmental awareness but also to lower the operational cost of network operators. However, current networks which are optimized based on non-energy related objectives introduce challenges towards green wireless access networks. In this thesis we investigate the solutions at the deployment level and handle energy efficiency assessment issues in wireless access networks.
The precise characterization of the power consumption of the whole network has a crucial importance in order to obtain consistent conclusions from any proposed solution at the network level. For this purpose, we propose a novel power consumption model considering the impact of backhaul for two established technologies, i.e., fiber and microwave, which is often ignored in the literature. We show that there is a tradeoff between the power saved by using low power base stations and the excess power that has to be spent for backhauling their traffic which therefore needs to carefully be included into energy efficiency analysis. Furthermore, among the solutions that are analyzed, fiber-based backhaul solution is identified to outperform microwave regardless of the considered topology. The proposed model is then used to gain a general insight regarding the important design parameters and their possible impact on energy- and cost oriented network design. To this end, we present a high-level framework to see the main tradeoffs between energy, infrastructure cost, spectrum and show that future high-capacity systems are increasingly limited by infrastructure and energy costs where spectrum has a strong positive impact on both.
We then investigate different network deployment strategies to improve the energy efficiency where we focus on the impact of various base station types, cell size, power consumption parameters and the capacity demand. We propose a refined power consumption model where the parameters are determined in accordance with cell size. We show that network densification can only be justified when capacity expansion is anticipated and over-provisioning of the network is not plausible for greener network. The improvement through heterogeneous networks is indicated to be highly related to the traffic demand where up to 30% improvement is feasible for high area throughput targets.
Furthermore, we consider the problem of energy efficiency assessment at the network level in order to allow operators to know their current status and quantify the potential energy savings of different solutions to establish future strategies. We propose elaborate metric forms that can characterize the efficiency and a methodology that indicate how to perform a reliable and accurate measurement considering the complexity of wireless networks. We show the weakness of the current metrics reporting the "effectiveness" and how these might indicate disputable improvement directions unless they are properly revised. This illustrates the need for a standardized network level energy efficiency evaluation methodology towards green wireless access.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2012. , ix, 60 p.
Trita-ICT-COS, ISSN 1653-6347 ; 1212
Energy efficiency, wireless access, green radio
Research subject SRA - ICT
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-104328OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-104328DiVA: diva2:563905
2012-11-30, Sal/Hall C2, Electrum, KTH-ICT, Isafjordsgatan 26, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Legg, Peter, Dr.
Zander, Jens, ProfessorSung, Ki Won, Dr.Slimane, Ben, Professor
ProjectsEnergy-efficient wireless networking (eWIN)
FunderICT - The Next GenerationWireless@kth
QC 201211092012-11-082012-10-312014-05-05Bibliographically approved
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