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A Novel Contextual Classification Algorithm for Multitemporal Polarimetric SAR Data
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Geoinformatics.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Geoinformatics.
2014 (English)In: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, ISSN 1545-598X, E-ISSN 1558-0571, Vol. 11, no 3, 681-685 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This letter presents a pixel-based contextual classification algorithm by integrating a multiscale modified Pappas adaptive clustering (mMPAC) and an adaptive Markov random field (AMRF) into the stochastic expectation-maximization process for urban land cover mapping using multitemporal polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data. This algorithm can effectively explore spatiotemporal contextual information to improve classification accuracy. Using the mMPAC, the problem caused by the class feature variation could be mitigated. Using the AMRF, shape details could be preserved from overaveraging that often occurs in many nonadaptive contextual approaches. Six-date RADARSAT-2 PolSAR data over the Greater Toronto Area were used for evaluation. The results show that this algorithm outperformed the support vector machine in producing homogeneous and detailed land cover classification in a complex urban environment with high accuracy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 11, no 3, 681-685 p.
Keyword [en]
Contextual classification, modified Pappas adaptive clustering (MPAC), Markov random field (MRF), polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR), stochastic expectation-maximization (SEM), urban land cover
National Category
Remote Sensing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-104759DOI: 10.1109/LGRS.2013.2274815ISI: 000332182600020OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-104759DiVA: diva2:567137
Note

QC 20140328. Updated from manuscript to article in journal.

Available from: 2012-11-12 Created: 2012-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Multitemporal Spaceborne Polarimetric SAR Data for Urban Land Cover Mapping
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multitemporal Spaceborne Polarimetric SAR Data for Urban Land Cover Mapping
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Urban land cover mapping represents one of the most important remote sensing applications in the context of rapid global urbanization. In recent years, high resolution spaceborne Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) has been increasingly used for urban land cover/land-use mapping, since more information could be obtained in multiple polarizations and the collection of such data is less influenced by solar illumination and weather conditions. 

The overall objective of this research is to develop effective methods to extract accurate and detailed urban land cover information from spaceborne PolSAR data. Six RADARSAT-2 fine-beam polarimetric SAR and three RADARSAT-2 ultra-fine beam SAR images were used. These data were acquired from June to September 2008 over the north urban-rural fringe of the Greater Toronto Area, Canada. The major landuse/land-cover classes in this area include high-density residential areas, low-density residential areas, industrial and commercial areas, construction sites, roads, streets, parks, golf courses, forests, pasture, water and two types of agricultural crops.

In this research, various polarimetric SAR parameters were evaluated for urban land cover mapping. They include the parameters from Pauli, Freeman and Cloude-Pottier decompositions, coherency matrix, intensities of each polarization and their logarithms.  Both object-based and pixel-based classification approaches were investigated. Through an object-based Support Vector Machine (SVM) and a rule-based approach, efficiencies of various PolSAR features and the multitemporal data combinations were evaluated. For the pixel-based approach, a contextual Stochastic Expectation-Maximization (SEM) algorithm was proposed. With an adaptive Markov Random Field (MRF) and a modified Multiscale Pappas Adaptive Clustering (MPAC), contextual information was explored to improve the mapping results. To take full advantages of alternative PolSAR distribution models, a rule-based model selection approach was put forward in comparison with a dictionary-based approach.  Moreover, the capability of multitemporal fine-beam PolSAR data was compared with multitemporal ultra-fine beam C-HH SAR data. Texture analysis and a rule-based approach which explores the object features and the spatial relationships were applied for further improvement.

Using the proposed approaches, detailed urban land-cover classes and finer urban structures could be mapped with high accuracy in contrast to most of the previous studies which have only focused on the extraction of urban extent or the mapping of very few urban classes. It is also one of the first comparisons of various PolSAR parameters for detailed urban mapping using an object-based approach. Unlike other multitemporal studies, the significance of complementary information from both ascending and descending SAR data and the temporal relationships in the data were the focus in the multitemporal analysis. Further, the proposed novel contextual analyses could effectively improve the pixel-based classification accuracy and present homogenous results with preserved shape details avoiding over-averaging. The proposed contextual SEM algorithm, which is one of the first to combine the adaptive MRF and the modified MPAC, was able to mitigate the degenerative problem in the traditional EM algorithms with fast convergence speed when dealing with many classes. This contextual SEM outperformed the contextual SVM in certain situations with regard to both accuracy and computation time. By using such a contextual algorithm, the common PolSAR data distribution models namely Wishart, G0p, Kp and KummerU were compared for detailed urban mapping in terms of both mapping accuracy and time efficiency. In the comparisons, G0p, Kp and KummerU demonstrated better performances with higher overall accuracies than Wishart. Nevertheless, the advantages of Wishart and the other models could also be effectively integrated by the proposed rule-based adaptive model selection, while limited improvement could be observed by the dictionary-based selection, which has been applied in previous studies. The use of polarimetric SAR data for identifying various urban classes was then compared with the ultra-fine-beam C-HH SAR data. The grey level co-occurrence matrix textures generated from the ultra-fine-beam C-HH SAR data were found to be more efficient than the corresponding PolSAR textures for identifying urban areas from rural areas. An object-based and pixel-based fusion approach that uses ultra-fine-beam C-HH SAR texture data with PolSAR data was developed. In contrast to many other fusion approaches that have explored pixel-based classification results to improve object-based classifications, the proposed rule-based fusion approach using the object features and contextual information was able to extract several low backscatter classes such as roads, streets and parks with reasonable accuracy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. x, 95 p.
Series
Trita-SOM , ISSN 1653-6126 ; 2012:18
Keyword
RADARSAT-2, Spaceborne, Polarimetric SAR, Urban Land cover, Object-based Rule-based Classification, Support Vector Machines, Contextual, Stochastic Expectation-Maximization, Markov Random Field.
National Category
Remote Sensing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-104762 (URN)978-91-7501-535-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-11-23, Sal D3, Lindstedtsvägen 5, entréplan, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Note

QC 20121112

Available from: 2012-11-12 Created: 2012-11-12 Last updated: 2012-11-12Bibliographically approved

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