Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Infrared Emittance of Paper: Method Development, Measurements and Application
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Metrology and Optics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1467-7413
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Thermography is a non-destructive technique which uses infrared radiation to obtain the temperature distribution of an object. The technique is increasingly used in the pulp and paper industry. To convert the detected infrared radiation to a temperature, the emittance of the material must be known. For several influencing parameters the emittance of paper and board has not previously been studied in detail. This is partly due to the lack of emittance measurement methods that allow for studying the influence of these parameters.

An angle-resolved goniometric method for measuring the infrared emittance of a material was developed in this thesis. The method is based on the reference emitter methodology, and uses commercial infrared cameras to determine the emittance. The method was applied to study the dependence on wavelength range, temperature, observation angle, moisture ratio, sample composition, and sample structure of the emittance of paper and board samples. It was found that the emittance varied significantly with wavelength range, observation angle and moisture ratio. The emittance was significantly higher in the LWIR (Long-Wavelength Infrared) range than in the MWIR (Mid-Wavelength Infrared) range. The emittance was approximately constant up to an observation angle of 60° in the MWIR range and 70° in the LWIR range, respectively. After that it started to decrease. The emittance of moist samples was significantly higher than that of dry samples. The influence of moisture ratio on the emittance could be estimated based on the moisture ratio of the sample, and the emittance of pure water and dry material, respectively.

The applicability of measured emittance values was demonstrated in an investigation of the mechanical properties of sack paper samples. An infrared camera was applied to monitor the generation of heat during a tensile test of a paper sample. It was found that the observed increase in thermal energy at the time of rupture corresponded well to the value of the elastic energy stored in the sample just prior to rupture. The measured emittance value provided an increased accuracy in the thermal energy calculation based on the infrared images.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. , 41 p.
Series
Trita-IIP, ISSN 1650-1888 ; 12:10
Keyword [en]
Emittance, Emissivity, Thermography, Paper, Sheet, Papermaking, Paper mechanics, Moisture, Material properties, Reflectance, Transmittance, Absorptance, Infrared, Mid-wavelength infrared, MWIR, Long-wavelength infrared, LWIR, Angle-resolved, Directional
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-104755OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-104755DiVA: diva2:570897
Presentation
2012-11-30, Sundbladsalen, Innventia AB, Drottning Kristingas Väg 61, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note

QC 20121121

Available from: 2012-11-21 Created: 2012-11-12 Last updated: 2013-04-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A method for measurement of the directional emittance of paper in the infrared wavelength range
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A method for measurement of the directional emittance of paper in the infrared wavelength range
2012 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 5, 958-967 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A method for measuring the directional emittance of paper and board samples was developed. The available literature showed that the influence of temperature and observation angle on the emittance of dry and moist paper had not been investigated in detail. Methods adapted for such investigations were not available. In the developed method, the emittance of a sample is determined by comparing its infrared radiation with the radiation emitted from a reference surface with known emittance. In order to investigate the influence of the wavelength range, two cameras, operating in the mid-wavelength and long-wavelength infrared range, respectively, were used. The method allows for the adjustment of the directional emission angle in a range from 0° down to 80°, and variation of the sample temperature between 30°C and 100°C. A study was performed to evaluate the method. Here, the directional emittance of handsheets made from thermo-mechanical pulp was measured at different wavelength ranges, sample temperatures and emission angles. The obtained emittance values and trends were in agreement with previous experimental work and theoretical predictions. The emittance of the samples was also measured using Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Given the methodological differences between the two measurement approaches, the results were in good agreement.

Keyword
Directional emittance, Emissivity, FTIR, Goniometer, Hemispherical emittance, Method development, Paper emittance, Thermography
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology Reliability and Maintenance
Research subject
SRA - Production
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-105415 (URN)10.3183/NPPRJ-2012-27-05-p958-967 (DOI)000313375400017 ()2-s2.0-84871732616 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyXPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note

QC 20130118. Updated from accepted to published.

Available from: 2012-11-21 Created: 2012-11-21 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Directional emittance of dry and moist paper
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Directional emittance of dry and moist paper
2012 (English)Report (Other academic)
Publisher
40 p.
Series
Innventia Report, 362
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-105416 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyXPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note

QC 20121121

Available from: 2012-11-21 Created: 2012-11-21 Last updated: 2016-08-16Bibliographically approved
3. Analysis of the plastic and elastic energy during the deformation and rupture of a paper sample using thermography
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of the plastic and elastic energy during the deformation and rupture of a paper sample using thermography
2012 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 2, 329-334 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thermography has been used to quantitatively analyze the plastic and elastic energy during deformation of paper. Sack paper samples were subjected to uniaxial tensile testing until rupture occurred. The temperature of the sample was simultaneously recorded with an infrared camera. The mechanical energy invested in the deformation was determined based on the force and deformation data. The thermal energy that accumulated in the sample during testing was estimated using the temperature measurements. Here, special attention was put on using the correct emittance values for the sack paper by measuring it with a new method. When comparing exerted mechanical energy with released thermal energy up to the time of sample rupture, about 40% to 60% of the mechanical energy could be detected as thermal energy. The lacking share of heat was most likely lost due to cooling of the sample during the experiments, as a lower share of detected mechanical energy was obtained for longer experiments. When comparing the increase in thermal energy during rupture to the elastic energy stored in the sample, an agreement of better than 90% was found.

Keyword
Elastic deformation, Emittance, Paper mechanics, Plastic deformation, Rupture work, Thermal energy, Thermography, Elastic energy, Emittances, Infra-red cameras, Mechanical energies, Paper samples, Sack paper, Uniaxial tensile testing, Deformation, Elasticity, Experiments, Temperature measurement, Tensile testing, Thermography (imaging), Thermography (temperature measurement), Paper, Experimentation, Pyrometry, Tensile Tests, Thermal Analysis
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-104882 (URN)10.3183/NPPRJ-2012-27-02-p329-334 (DOI)000315696000022 ()2-s2.0-84865201840 (Scopus ID)
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note

QC 20121114

Available from: 2012-11-14 Created: 2012-11-14 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

Licentiate_thesis_Caroline_Hyll_Infrared_Emittance_of_Paper(3418 kB)973 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 3418 kBChecksum SHA-512
b74fe956721444cf225191b6f753cbbd7649da3ccf756fb32e5561bc66001418c2da7b675022897ff9b4778da4d0ffd183c4f13e36fbe2855beb1bf6c146dba5
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Authority records BETA

Hyll, Caroline

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Hyll, Caroline
By organisation
Metrology and Optics
Materials Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 973 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

urn-nbn

Altmetric score

urn-nbn
Total: 318 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf