Inhalation toxicity of 316L stainless steel powder in relation to bioaccessibility
2013 (English)In: Human and Experimental Toxicology, ISSN 0960-3271, E-ISSN 1477-0903, Vol. 32, no 11, 1137-1154 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) considers metallic alloys, such as nickel (Ni)-containing stainless steel (SS), as mixtures of substances, without considering that alloys behave differently compared to their constituent metals. This study presents an approach using metal release, explained by surface compositional data, for the prediction of inhalation toxicity of SS AISI 316L. The release of Ni into synthetic biological fluids is >1000-fold lower from the SS powder than from Ni metal, due to the chromium(III)-rich surface oxide of SS. Thus, it was hypothesized that the inhalation toxicity of SS is significantly lower than what could be predicted based on Ni metal content. A 28-day inhalation study with rats exposed to SS 316L powder (<4 mu m, mass median aerodynamic diameter 2.5-3.0 mu m) at concentrations up to 1.0mg/L showed accumulation of metal particles in the lung lobes, but no signs of inflammation, although Ni metal caused lung toxicity in a similar published study at significantly lower concentrations. It was concluded that the bioaccessible (released) fraction, rather than the elemental nominal composition, predicts the toxicity of SS powder. The study provides a basis for an approach for future validation, standardization and risk assessment of metal alloys.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 32, no 11, 1137-1154 p.
stainless steel, inhalation, rat, toxicity, metal release, bioaccessibility
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-105511DOI: 10.1177/0960327112472354ISI: 000327377400003ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84889062341OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-105511DiVA: diva2:571292
QC 20131220. Updated from accepted to published.2012-11-222012-11-222013-12-20Bibliographically approved