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Bio-methane upgrading of pyrolysis gas from charcoal production
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8871-2085
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0635-7372
2013 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 3, 66-73 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article presents a novel route for bio-methane synthesis utilizing pyrolysis gas from charcoal production. It is a retrofit option that may increase overall process efficiency in charcoal production while adding a valuable product. The pyrolysis gas from charcoal production can be used for bio-methane production instead of burning, while the required heat for the charcoal production is supplied by additional biomass. The aim is to evaluate the energy efficiency of bio-methane upgrading from two types of charcoal plants, with and without recovery of liquid by-products (bio-oil). Aspen simulations and calculations of the energy and mass balances are used to analyse the system. The yield of bio-methane compared to the import of additional biomass is estimated to be 81% and 85% (biomass to bio-methane yield) for the syngas case and the pyrolysis vapour case, respectively. When the biomass necessary to produce the needed electricity (assuming ηel = 33%) is included, the yields amount to 65% and 73%. The results show that the suggested process is a competitive production route for methane from lignocellulosic biomass.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 3, 66-73 p.
Keyword [en]
Bio-methane, Biomass, Charcoal, Pyrolysis, SNG
National Category
Energy Engineering Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-105563DOI: 10.1016/j.seta.2013.07.001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84882580667OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-105563DiVA: diva2:571464
Note

Updated from "Submitted" to "Published" QC 20140218

Available from: 2012-11-22 Created: 2012-11-22 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Energy system evaluation of thermo-chemical biofuel production: Process development by integration of power cycles and sustainable electricity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy system evaluation of thermo-chemical biofuel production: Process development by integration of power cycles and sustainable electricity
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Fossil fuels dominate the world energy supply today and the transport sector is no exception. Renewable alternatives must therefore be introduced to replace fossil fuels and their emissions, without sacrificing our standard of living. There is a good potential for biofuels but process improvements are essential, to ensure efficient use of a limited amount of biomass and better compete with fossil alternatives. The general aim of this research is therefore to investigate how to improve efficiency in biofuel production by process development and co-generation of heat and electricity. The work has been divided into three parts; power cycles in biofuel production, methane production via pyrolysis and biofuels from renewable electricity.

The studies of bio-based methanol plants showed that steam power generation has a key role in the large-scale biofuel production process. However, a large portion of the steam from the recovered reaction heat is needed in the fuel production process. One measure to increase steam power generation, evaluated in this thesis, is to lower the steam demand by humidification of the gasification agent. Pinch analysis indicated synergies from gas turbine integration and our studies concluded that the electrical efficiency for natural gas fired gas turbines amounts to 56-58%, in the same range as for large combined cycle plants. The use of the off-gas from the biofuel production is also a potential integration option but difficult for modern high-efficient gas turbines. Furthermore, gasification with oxygen and extensive syngas cleaning might be too energy-consuming for efficient power generation.

Methane production via pyrolysis showed improved efficiency compared with the competing route via gasification. The total biomass to methane efficiency, including additional biomass to fulfil the power demand, was calculated to 73-74%. The process benefits from lower thermal losses and less reaction heat when syngas is avoided as an intermediate step and can handle high-alkali fuels such as annual crops.

Several synergies were discovered when integrating conventional biofuel production with addition of hydrogen. Introducing hydrogen would also greatly increase the biofuel production potential for regions with limited biomass resources. It was also concluded that methane produced from electrolysis of water could be economically feasible if the product was priced in parity with petrol.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. v, 68 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2012:59
Keyword
Biomass, Gasification, Methane, SNG, Power to Gas, Pyrolysis
National Category
Energy Systems Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-105814 (URN)978-91-7415-835-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-12-14, Sal E3, Osquarsbacke 14, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20121127

Available from: 2012-11-27 Created: 2012-11-27 Last updated: 2012-11-27Bibliographically approved
2. The role of methane and hydrogen in a fossil-free Swedish transport sector
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of methane and hydrogen in a fossil-free Swedish transport sector
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Drastic reductions of greenhouse gas emissions are required to limit the severe risks associated with a changing climate. One measure is to disrupt the fossil-fuel dependency in the transport sector, but it appears difficult and costly in comparison to other measures.

Vehicles and fuels are available, but no single alternative can replace petrol and diesel in all parts of the transport system. None of them are ideal regarding all of the following aspects: vehicle performance, fuel production potential, sustainability, infrastructure, technology development and economy. Instead, several fuels are needed.

In this thesis, the aim is to investigate the role of methane and hydrogen in a fossil- free vehicle fleet in Sweden, and compare them with other fuels in terms of well-to-wheel energy efficiency and economy. Processes for producing methane from biomass, waste streams from pulp mills and electricity are studied with techno-economic methods. Furthermore, well-to-wheel studies and scenarios are used to investigate the fuel chains and the interaction with the energy and transport systems.

Effects of policy instruments on the development of biogas in the Swedish transport sector are also analysed and policy instruments are suggested to increase the use of methane and to introduce hydrogen and fuel cell electric vehicles. The results reveal that tax exemptions and investment support have been and will continue to be important policy instruments, but that effective policy instruments are needed to develop fuelling infrastructure and to support alternative vehicles.

Electricity will be an important transport fuel for several reasons; the electric powertrain enables high energy efficiency and electricity can be produced from various renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, other fuels will be needed as complements to electricity. The results reveal that methane and hydrogen and associated vehicles may be necessary to reach a fossil-free vehicle fleet in Sweden. These fuels have several advantages:

-        The function of the vehicles resembles conventional vehicles but with lower local and global emissions.

-        Methane is a well proven as a transport fuel and hydrogen infrastructure and FCEVs, are commercial or close to commercialisation.

-        They enable high well-to-wheel energy efficiency.

-        They can be produced from renewable electricity and act as energy storage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. 93 p.
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 55
Keyword
renewable transport fuels, biogas, methane, hydrogen, electrofuels, pyrolysis, well to wheel, transport policy, energy policy
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-174018 (URN)978-91-7595-706-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-10-23, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 09:30 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Energy Systems Programme
Note

QC 20150929

Available from: 2015-09-29 Created: 2015-09-24 Last updated: 2015-09-29Bibliographically approved

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Larsson, MårtenAlvfors, Per

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