Grafting Efficiency of Synthetic Polymers onto Biomaterials: A comparative study of grafting- from versus grafting- to
2013 (English)In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 14, no 1, 64-74 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
In the present study, the two grafting techniques grafting-from - by activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET ATRP) - and grafting-to - by copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) - were systematically compared, employing cellulose as a substrate. In order to obtain a meaningful comparison, it is crucial that the graft lengths of the polymers that are grafted from and to the substrates are essentially identical. Herein, this was achieved by utilizing the free polymer formed in parallel to the grafting-from reaction as the polymer for the grafting-to reaction. Four graft lengths were investigated, and the molar masses of the four free polymers (21 ≤ Mn ≤ 100 kDa; 1.07 ≤ M ≤ 1.26), i.e. the polymers subsequently employed in the grafting-to reaction, were shown to be in the same range as the molar masses of the polymers grafted from the surface (23 ≤ Mn ≤ 87 kDa; 1.08 ≤ M ≤ 1.31). The molecular weights of the chains grafted from the surface were established after cleavage from the cellulose substrates via size exclusion chromatography (SEC). High-resolution Fourier transform infrared microscopy (FT-IRM) was employed as an efficient tool to study the spatial distribution of the polymer content on the grafted substrates. In addition, the functionalized substrates were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle (CA) measurements, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). For cellulose substrates modified via the grafting-from approach, the content of polymer on the surfaces increased with increasing graft length, confirming the possibility to tailor not only the length of the polymer grafts but also the polymeric content on the surface. In comparison, for the grafting-to reaction, the grafted content could not be controlled by varying the length of the preformed polymer: the polymer content was essentially the same for the four graft lengths. Consequently, the obtained results, when employing cellulose as a substrate and under these conditions, suggest that the grafting-from approach is superior to the grafting-to technique with respect to controlling the distribution of the polymeric content on the surface.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 14, no 1, 64-74 p.
Transfer Radical Polymerization, Modular Surface Modification, Initiated Arget Atrp, Raft Polymerization, Cellulose Fibers, Hydrophobic Modification, Responsive Cellulose, Click-Chemistry, Solid Cellulose, Cycloaddition
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-105760DOI: 10.1021/bm3013132ISI: 000313605800008ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84872571250OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-105760DiVA: diva2:572002
QC 201302132012-11-262012-11-262013-02-14Bibliographically approved