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Local Television Content Production: Process Structures and Climate Impacts – a Case Study
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3023-716X
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
2012 (English)In: Journal of Print and Media Technology Research, ISSN 2223-8905, Vol. 1, no 4, 215-232 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The business environment in which media companies exist today is rapidly changing. If they have not done so already, media companies need to position themselves to this ongoing change and find their place in the new media landscape. However, this could also mean a good opportunity to optimize work processes on different levels. In order to meet these opportunities, as well as being proactive when it comes to environmental performance, we first need to understand the current structure of media companies, for example when it comes to work processes.

The aim of this study is to identify and analyze the process structure and the potential climate impact of the content production of the local television station TV4 Gävle/Dalarna in Sweden. The study objectives are:

  • to identify the major editorial and marketing processes and to visualize the two workflows in order to discover how the processes could be optimized and how this in turn may affect the environmental impact.
  • to assess the carbon footprint of the content production of the local television station and to identify the major reasons for this climate change impact.

Two main methods were used – semi-structured interviews and carbon footprint assessment.

The editorial part of the workflow is centered on broadcasting news at certain times. A total of nine process steps were identified in the editorial workflow. The largest amount of person hours can be found in the process steps of content production and content editing. Work is done in order to meet the deadlines which come every time there is a broadcast. This fact puts special demands on the personnel, such as an ability to manage stress and short deadlines, and an ability to handle the technical equipment in one-person teams. There is a total of seven process steps on the marketing side, two of which are located outside of the local television station.

A large part of the carbon footprint from the TV4 Gävle/Dalarna content production is caused by business trips by car. The editorial department makes most of the business trips, but the marketing department is also responsible for some of the trips. The total carbon footprint from the television production is estimated to 52 tons of CO2 eq/year, including the employees’ trips to andfrom the workplace. The trips to and from work is the second largest contributor to the carbon footprint. When considering the impact per viewer, the result is 0.35 kg of CO2 eq/viewer and year.

Judging from today’s situation, the efficiency on the editorial side is very good. However, it might still be fruitful to consider the travelling practices in order to improve the overall environmental performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 1, no 4, 215-232 p.
Keyword [en]
Carbon footprint, environmental impact, LCA, media, television, workflow structure
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-105855OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-105855DiVA: diva2:572539
Note

QC 20121128

Available from: 2012-11-28 Created: 2012-11-28 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Media processes for content production: Studies of structures and climate impacts
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Media processes for content production: Studies of structures and climate impacts
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The business environment in which media companies exist today is rapidly changing. Many media companies are in the process of positioning themselves to this ongoing change and to finding their place in the new media landscape. A process of change creates an opportunity to optimize work processes on different levels. In order to meet these opportunities, as well as being proactive when it comes to environmental performance, we need to understand the current structures of media companies, for example when it comes to work processes.

The aim of this study is to identify and analyze the process structures and the potential climate impact of the content production of three different media companies in Sweden: a local newspaper, a monthly magazine and a local television station. The overall research questions of this thesis are:

• What are the major editorial processes at media companies and how can the workflows be visualized, in order for us to discover how the processes can be optimized and how this in turn may affect the environmental impact?

• How are the results of the process analysis related to a general assessment of the carbon footprint of the content production, in order for us to identify the major reasons for this potential climate change impact and opportunities for change?

The research methods used were semi-structured interviews and carbon footprint assessment. The research results suggest that in general terms, newspapers and magazines spend a considerable amount of working time producing content, and content production is the single most important reason for travelling at the three media companies studied. Travel is also done by management to a high degree in all three case studies, mostly to different kinds of business meetings. Planning is another work activity that takes up a considerable amount of time when looking at the total time spent at work. Computers are to a high degree used when planning, but more advanced computer programmes or tools could be recommended to expand the planning possibilities further, thereby saving time and money for the media company.The results of the life cycle assessments indicate that the major reasons for potential climate change impact are travel – both work-related business travel and trips to and from work – electronic equipment, and electricity use. The research results suggest that in order to reduce potential environmental impact from travel, media management should look into technical solutions for meetings at a distance, car-pooling or increasing the use of public transportation. Furthermore, new technical solutions have a potential to lower the costs of the content production processes and streamline work processes in general. With a conscious effort by management, new technology could also be beneficial for the overall environmental impact of the media company. The media companies could for example consider the environmental performance to a higher degree when buying new electronic devices, such as computers. Finally, the media companies could look over their electricity use and make an attempt to reduce their electricity use, as well as making active choices for environmentally friendly alternatives when choosing electricity supplier.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. vi, 24 p.
Series
Trita-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2012:17
Keyword
media, work processes, content production, LCA, climate impacts
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-105803 (URN)978-91-7501-571-2 (ISBN)
Presentation
2012-12-14, E2, Lindstedtsvägen 3, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20121128

Available from: 2012-11-28 Created: 2012-11-27 Last updated: 2012-11-28Bibliographically approved
2. Towards a sustainable media system: Explorative studies of emerging media consumption trends and media processes for content production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a sustainable media system: Explorative studies of emerging media consumption trends and media processes for content production
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Understanding the process of transformational change currently taking place in the media industry is an urgent challenge for people working in the industry as well as for media consumers and other stakeholders. There is a great need to deepen our general knowledge when it comes to what the future media landscape will look like. Which of the major consumption trends that exist today will continue and possibly lead to disruptive change? Which of today’s existing trends could give us a hint of tomorrow’s media landscape? Furthermore, we need to explore the environmental impact of the future media landscape. What parameters are important when it comes to environmental aspects of media consumption, as well as in the production and distribution of media content? These are examples of the questions explored in this thesis.

I have used a number of methods, such as qualitative interviews, workshops, scenarios, case studies, process studies and life cycle assessment, in order to explore the research questions. The characteristics of the media consumption trends are presented in four scenarios. I have assumed that the strength of influence from the government in combination with the strength of commercial powers will strongly affect the future of media. The development of media is framed by the economy, the political system, and by culture. The future of media is closely connected with its relationship to the power structures in society.

I have also defined eleven parameters, as central when discussing the environmental aspects of media consumption. These parameters are related to electronic devices, travel, transportation, energy use and waste. In the future, we may see the realisation of some of all four scenarios described in this thesis. The environmental aspects of these different future directions depend on each person’s life situation and a number of choices that each consumer makes concerning environmental issues, in combination with the overall societal structure.

In relation to the global challenge of climate change/global warming, I conclude that traditional media, public service media in particular, together with social media channels play an important role in the process of increasing knowledge and awareness among consumers, politicians and other stakeholders in society. However, in current media development, media companies are rapidly becoming more commercialized and more focused on entertainment instead of on producing serious journalism concerned with social, political and cultural matters.

To conclude, I believe that it is possible to create a sustainable media system, but it will require some conscious effort of people working in the media industry, of consumers, and ultimately at the level of regulatory authorities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. 92 p.
Series
TRITA-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2015:04
Keyword
Future of media, media consumption, media production, environmental aspects, media and sustainability
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Media Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-164395 (URN)978-91-7595-491-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-05-08, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20150416

Available from: 2015-04-16 Created: 2015-04-16 Last updated: 2015-04-16Bibliographically approved

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Arushanyan, Yevgeniya

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