Taming Mona Lisa: communicating gaze faithfully in 2D and 3D facial projections
2012 (English)In: ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems, Vol. 1, no 2, 25- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The perception of gaze plays a crucial role in human-human interaction. Gaze has been shown to matter for a number of aspects of communication and dialogue, especially for managing the flow of the dialogue and participant attention, for deictic referencing, and for the communication of attitude. When developing embodied conversational agents (ECAs) and talking heads, modeling and delivering accurate gaze targets is crucial. Traditionally, systems communicating through talking heads have been displayed to the human conversant using 2D displays, such as flat monitors. This approach introduces severe limitations for an accurate communication of gaze since 2D displays are associated with several powerful effects and illusions, most importantly the Mona Lisa gaze effect, where the gaze of the projected head appears to follow the observer regardless of viewing angle. We describe the Mona Lisa gaze effect and its consequences in the interaction loop, and propose a new approach for displaying talking heads using a 3D projection surface (a physical model of a human head) as an alternative to the traditional flat surface projection. We investigate and compare the accuracy of the perception of gaze direction and the Mona Lisa gaze effect in 2D and 3D projection surfaces in a five subject gaze perception experiment. The experiment confirms that a 3D projection surface completely eliminates the Mona Lisa gaze effect and delivers very accurate gaze direction that is independent of the observer's viewing angle. Based on the data collected in this experiment, we rephrase the formulation of the Mona Lisa gaze effect. The data, when reinterpreted, confirms the predictions of the new model for both 2D and 3D projection surfaces. Finally, we discuss the requirements on different spatially interactive systems in terms of gaze direction, and propose new applications and experiments for interaction in a human-ECA and a human-robot settings made possible by this technology.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 1, no 2, 25- p.
Computer Science Language Technology (Computational Linguistics)
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-106994DOI: 10.1145/2070719.207072OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-106994DiVA: diva2:574371
tmh_import_12_12_05, tmh_id_3542. Updated from "In press" to "Published"
QC 201212102012-12-052012-12-052012-12-10Bibliographically approved