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Sensor-Based Garments that Enable the Use of Bioimpedance Technology: Towards PersonalizedHealthcare Monitoring.
KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS) (Closed 20130701).
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Functional garments for physiological sensing purposes have been utilized in several disciplinesi.e. sports, firefighting, military and medical. In most of the cases textile electrodes (Textrodes)embedded in the garment are employed to monitor vital signs and other physiologicalmeasurements. Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) is a non-invasive and effective technology that canbe used for detection and supervision of different health conditions. In some specific applicationssuch as body composition assessment EBIS has shown encouraging results proving good degreeof effectiveness and reliability. In a similar way Impedance Cardiography (ICG) is anothermodality of EBI primarily concerned with the determination of Stroke Volume SV, indices ofcontractility, and other aspects of hemodynamics.EBI technology in the previously mentioned modalities can benefit from a integration with agarment; however, a successful implementation of EBI technology depends on the goodperformance of textile electrodes. The main weakness of Textrodes is a deficient skin-electrodeinterface which produces a high degree of sensitivity to signal disturbances. This sensitivity canbe reduced with a suitable selection of the electrode material and an intelligent and ergonomicgarment design that ensures an effective skin-electrode contact area.This research work studies the performance of textile electrodes and garments for EBIspectroscopy for Total Body Assessment and Transthoracic Electrical Bioimpedance (TEB) forcardio monitoring. Their performance is analyzed based on impedance spectra, estimation ofparameters, influence of electrode polarization impedance Zep and quality of the signals using asreference Ag/AgCl electrodes. The study includes the analysis of some characteristics of thetextile electrodes such as conductive material, skin-electrode contact area size and fabricconstruction.The results obtained in this research work present evidence that textile garments with a dry skinelectrodeinterface like the ones used in research produce reliable EBI measurements in bothmodalities: BIS for Total Body Assessment and TEB for Impedance Cardiography. Textiletechnology, if successfully integrated, may enable the utilization of EBI in both modalities andconsequently implementing wearable applications for home and personal health monitoring.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , x, 70 p.
Series
TRITA-STH : report, ISSN 1653-3836 ; 2012:6
Keyword [en]
Bioimpedance, textrodes, textile electrodes, Impedance Cardiography, Body Composition
National Category
Medical Materials Medical Equipment Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-107493ISBN: 978-91-7501-603-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-107493DiVA: diva2:576294
Public defence
2013-01-16, 3-221, Alfred Nobels Allé 10, Flemingsberg, 14:40 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20121213

Available from: 2012-12-13 Created: 2012-12-12 Last updated: 2016-02-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Textile electrodes in Electrical Bioimpedance measurements - a comparison with conventional Ag/AgCl electrodes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Textile electrodes in Electrical Bioimpedance measurements - a comparison with conventional Ag/AgCl electrodes
2009 (English)In: EMBC: 2009 ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE ENGINEERING IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY SOCIETY, VOLS 1-20, IEEE , 2009, Vol. 2009, 4816-4819 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Work has been intensified around the integration of textile and measurement technology for physiological measurements in the last years. As a result nowadays it is possible to find available commercial products for cardiovascular personal healthcare monitoring. Most of the efforts have been focused in the acquisition of EKG for cardiovascular monitoring where textile electrodes have shown satisfactory performance. Electrical Bioimpedance is another type of physiological measurement that can be used for personal healthcare monitoring where the integration and the performance of the textile electrodes has not been investigated that thoroughly. In this work, the influence of the textile electrodes on the measurements and on the estimation of the Cole (R(0), R(infinity), f(C) and alpha) and body composition (TBW, ICW, ECW and FFM) parameters has been especially addressed. Complex Spectroscopy 4-electrode wrist-to-ankle electrical bioimpedance measurements taken with conventional Ag/AgCl and textile-electrodes on customized bracelets have been compared and analyzed in the frequency range 3 to 500 kHz. The obtained results suggest that the use of textile electrodes do not influence remarkably on the complex spectral measurements neither in the estimation of Cole nor body composition parameter. In any case any possible effect introduced by the use of textile is smaller than the effect of preparing the skin by the using abrasive conductive paste.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2009
Series
IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1557-170X
National Category
Medical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-75338 (URN)10.1109/IEMBS.2009.5332631 (DOI)000280543603298 ()19963626 (PubMedID)978-1-4244-3295-0 (ISBN)
Conference
Annual International Conference of the IEEE-Engineering-in-Medicine-and-Biology-Society, Minneapolis, MN, SEP 03-06, 2009
Note

QC 20120210

Available from: 2012-02-05 Created: 2012-02-05 Last updated: 2012-12-13Bibliographically approved
2. Comparison of dry-textile electrodes for electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of dry-textile electrodes for electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements
2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Textile Electrodes have been widely studied for biopotentials recordings, specially for monitoring the cardiac activity. Commercially available applications, such as Adistar T-shirt and Textronics Cardioshirt, have proved a good performance for heart rate monitoring and are available worldwide. Textile technology can also be used for Electrical Bioimpedance Spectroscopy measurements enabling home and personalized health monitoring applications however solid ground research about the measurement performance of the electrodes must be done prior to the development of any textile-enabled EBI application. In this work a comparison of the measurement performance of two different types of dry-textile electrodes and manufacturers has been performed against standardized RedDot 3M Ag/AgCl electrolytic electrodes. 4-Electrode, whole body, Ankle-to-Wrist EBI measurements have been taken with the Impedimed spectrometer SFB7 from healthy subjects in the frequency range of 3kHz to 500kHz. Measurements have been taken with dry electrodes at different times to study the influence of the interaction skin-electrode interface on the EBI measurements. The analysis of the obtained complex EBI spectra shows that the measurements performed with textile electrodes produce constant and reliable EBI spectra. Certain deviation can be observed at higher frequencies and the measurements obtained with Textronics and Ag/AgCl electrodes present a better resemblance. Textile technology, if successfully integrated it, may enable the performance of EBI measurements in new scenarios allowing the rising of novel wearable monitoring applications for home and personal care as well as car safety.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2010
Series
Journal of Physics Conference Series, 224:1
National Category
Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-73064 (URN)10.1088/1742-6596/224/1/012140 (DOI)2-s2.0-77954666264 (Scopus ID)
Conference
International Conference of Electrical Bioimpedance
Note

QC 20120206

Available from: 2012-02-06 Created: 2012-02-01 Last updated: 2012-12-13Bibliographically approved
3. Skin-electrode contact area in electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy. Influence in total body composition assessment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skin-electrode contact area in electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy. Influence in total body composition assessment
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS, IEEE Engineering In Medicine and Biology Society , 2011, Vol. 2011, 1867-1870 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Electrical Bioimpedance Spectroscopy (EBIS) has been widely used for assessment of total body composition and fluid distribution. (EBIS) measurements are commonly performed with electrolytic electrodes placed on the wrist and the ankle with a rather small skin-electrode contact area. The use of textile garments for EBI requires the integration of textrodes with a larger contact area surrounding the limbs in order to compensate the absence of electrolytic medium commonly present in traditional Ag/AgCl gel electrodes. Recently it has been shown that mismatch between the measurements electrodes might cause alterations on the EBIS measurements. When performing EBIS measurements with textrodes certain differences have been observed, especially at high frequencies, respect the same EBIS measurements using Ag/AgCl electrodes. In this work the influence of increasing the skin-electrode area on the estimation of body composition parameters has been studied performing experimental EBIS measurement. The results indicate that an increment on the area of the skin-electrode interface produced noticeable changes in the bioimpedance spectra as well as in the body composition parameters. Moreover, the area increment showed also an apparent reduction of electrode impedance mismatch effects. This influence must be taken into consideration when designing and testing textile-enable EBIS measurement systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Engineering In Medicine and Biology Society, 2011
Series
IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1557-170X
National Category
Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-69634 (URN)10.1109/IEMBS.2011.6090530 (DOI)000298810001249 ()22254694 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84055184527 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-4122-8 (ISBN)
Conference
33rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS 2011; Boston, MA; 30 August 2011 through 3 September 2011
Note
QC 20120302Available from: 2012-01-29 Created: 2012-01-29 Last updated: 2012-12-13Bibliographically approved
4. Textrode functional straps for bioimpedance measurements-experimental results for body composition analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Textrode functional straps for bioimpedance measurements-experimental results for body composition analysis
2013 (English)In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 67, no SUPPL. 1, S22-S27 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background/Objectives:Functional garments for physiological sensing purposes have been used in several disciplines, that is, sports, firefighting, military and medicine. In most of the cases, textile electrodes (textrodes) embedded in the garment are used to monitor vital signs and other physiological measurements. Electrical bioimpedance (EBI) is a non-invasive and effective technology that can be used for the detection and supervision of different health conditions.EBI technology could make use of the advantages of garment integration; however, a successful implementation of EBI technology depends on the good performance of textrodes. The main drawback of textrodes is a deficient skin-electrode interface that produces a high degree of sensitivity to signal disturbances. This sensitivity can be reduced with a suitable selection of the electrode material and an intelligent and ergonomic garment design that ensures an effective skin-electrode contact area.Subjects/Methods:In this work, textrode functional straps for total right side EBI measurements for body composition are presented, and its measurement performance is compared against the use of Ag/AgCl electrodes. Shieldex sensor fabric and a tetra-polar electrode configuration using the ImpediMed spectrometer SFB7 in the frequency range of 3-500 kHz were used to obtain and analyse the impedance spectra and Cole and body composition parameters.Results:The results obtained show stable and reliable measurements; the slight differences obtained with the functional garment do not significantly affect the computation of Cole and body composition parameters.Conclusions:The use of a larger sensor area, a high conductive material and an appropriate design can compensate, to some degree, for the charge transfer deficiency of the skin-electrode interface.

Keyword
Body composition, bioimpedance, textrodes, textile electrodes, Bioimpedance spectroscopy
National Category
Other Medical Engineering Medical Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-107482 (URN)10.1038/ejcn.2012.161 (DOI)000318689500005 ()2-s2.0-84872161959 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 2013205

Available from: 2012-12-12 Created: 2012-12-12 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
5. Textrode-enabled transthoracic electrical bioimpedance measurements: towards wearable applications of impedance cardiography
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Textrode-enabled transthoracic electrical bioimpedance measurements: towards wearable applications of impedance cardiography
2013 (English)In: Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance, ISSN 1891-5469, E-ISSN 1891-5469, Vol. 4, 45-50 p.Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During the last decades the use of Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) in the medical field has been subject of extensive research, especially since it is an affordable, harmless and non-invasive technology.

In some specific applications such as body composition assessment where EBI has proven a good degree of effectiveness and reliability, the use of textile electrodes and measurement garments have shown a good performance and reproducible results.

Impedance Cardiography (ICG) is another modality of EBI that can benefit from the implementation and use of wearable sensors. ICG technique is based on continuous impedance measurements of a longitudinal segment across the thorax taken at a single frequency. The need for specific electrode placement on the thorax and neck can be easily ensured with the use of a garment with embedded textile electrodes, textrodes. The first step towards the implementation of ICG technology into a garment is to find out if ICG measurements with textile sensors give a good enough quality of the signal to allow the estimation of the fundamental ICG parameters.

In this work, the measurement performance of a 2-belt set with incorporated textrodes for thorax and neck was compared against ICG measurements obtained with Ag/AgCl electrodes. The analysis was based on the quality of the fundamental ICG signals (∆Z, dZ/dt and ECG), systolic time intervals and other ICG parameters. The obtained results indicate the feasibility of using textrodes for ICG measurements with consistent measurements and relatively low data dispersion. Thus, enabling the development of measuring garments for ICG measurements.

Keyword
ICG, Impedance Cardiography, Bioimpedance, textrodes, textile electrodes
National Category
Medical Materials Medical Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-107489 (URN)10.5617/jeb.542 (DOI)
Note

QC 20141118. Updated from submitted to published.

Available from: 2012-12-12 Created: 2012-12-12 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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  • Other locale
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Output format
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