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Impact Assessment Study of Adding RES into the Operational Dispatch of Ghana’s Electricity System
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. (Heat and Power Technology)
2012 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

In the context of a consultancy service contract Lahmeyer International is currently working on the “Renewable Energy Rollout Plan” in the Electricity System of the Republic of Ghana. In this rollout plan the impacts of adding Renewable Energy Systems (RES) to the Ghana Electricity System on the dispatch of the thermal plants as well as associated fuel consumptions, emissions and generation costs are analysed. In the present study one specific question has been addressed, the impact of RES (approx. 7% static penetration) on the operational dispatch of Ghana’s conventional power plant fleet (large share hydro + thermal plants).


The analysis has been conducted by developing a computer based mixed integer linear programming (MILP) optimization model using Microsoft Solver foundation service and programmed on Visual Basic. The model is capable of solving unit commitment and economic dispatch problem, by taking into account various operational characteristics of RES like variability and unpredictability, minimum and maximum energy generation range for hydro power plants and minimum uptime and downtime, technical minima and maxima, spinning reserve and differentiated part load behavior of thermal units. Various dispatch strategies are followed with respect to analysis with and without renewable and the impacts thereof on the electricity system.


The analysis of the results suggests that in 2011 there are not much reserves in the electricity system, since the available capacity of the generating units is quite close to the electricity system requirement (sum of spinning reserve and demand load). In 2016, with additional power plants installed relative to the peak demand load, it is seen to be more economical to switch on diverse plants keeping significant reserves online. This means for the RES integration: In 2011 it would have been infeasible to integrate a large amount of RES and on the other hand in 2016 the integration of the 160 MW RES is feasible as it does not impact the electricity system stability due to the large reserves. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. , 75 p.
Keyword [en]
Unit Commitment; economic dispatch; hydro-thermal power plants; RES Integration; Impact analysis; MILP; operational dispatch; Ghana electricity system
National Category
Engineering and Technology
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-109531OAI: diva2:583317
Educational program
Master of Science - Sustainable Energy Engineering
2012-10-30, ITM_EGI_HPT_LIBRARY( via Skype), 13:15 (English)
Available from: 2013-01-22 Created: 2013-01-07 Last updated: 2013-01-22Bibliographically approved

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Goyal_Abhinav_EGI-2012-090MSC EKV916(2439 kB)355 downloads
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