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The effect of surface modifications on the mechanical and thermal properties of empty fruit bunch oil palm fibre PP biocomposites
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2139-7460
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5394-7850
2012 (English)In: Polymers from Renewable Resources, ISSN 2041-2479, Vol. 3, no 3, 79-100 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this work was to study the effect of chemical surface modifications on empty fruit bunch oil palm fibre/polypropylene composite properties. By FTIR spectra, propionylated fibre and PPgMA-modified fibre showed the presence of a carbonyl group of esters while vinyltrimethoxysilane-treated fibre showed a peak of silicate, confirming that the modifications were successful. PPgMAmodified fibre PP composite at fibre content 20% demonstrated the highest modulus of 0.71 GPa while the modulus of unmodified fibre PP composite was 0.56 GPa. By DSC analysis, PPgMA-modified fibre and vinyltrimethoxysilane-treated fibre PP composite at the same fibre content of 5% showed the highest crystallinity of 46% and 44% respectively whereas unmodified fibre PP composite showed a lower crystallinity of 38%. The DMTA analysis showed that after 60°C, the modified fibre PP composites exhibited a higher stiffness than pure polypropylene.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 3, no 3, 79-100 p.
Keyword [en]
Biocomposite, Empty fruit bunch oil palm fibre, Mechanical properties, Polypropylene, Surface modification, Thermal properties
National Category
Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-110207Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84869800540OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-110207DiVA: diva2:586130
Note

QC 20130111

Available from: 2013-01-11 Created: 2013-01-10 Last updated: 2013-03-25Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Tuning the long-term properties to control biodegradation by surface modifications of agricultural fibres in biocomposites
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tuning the long-term properties to control biodegradation by surface modifications of agricultural fibres in biocomposites
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Sustainable polymeric materials put emphasis on mastering the whole life-cycle of polymeric materials. This includes the choice of raw materials, selection of synthesis and processing, environmental impact during long-term use followed by detailed knowledge about recycling and waste management.  Within this large efforts are put in the design and development of new biocomposites using renewable fibres instead of inert ones. The thesis deals with surface modifications of agricultural fibres and the design of biocomposites with optimal long-term properties balancing the potential risk for biodegradation. 

The first part of this thesis involved surface modifications of oil palm fibres and production of biocomposites with PP as matrix. The chemical surface modifications of oil palm fibres explored propionylation, PPgMA grafting via solution modification and reactive blending and vinyltrimethoxy silanization as methods. All modified fibre/PP biocomposites showed improvements in the mechanical properties followed also by an improvement of water resistance. In comparison with unmodificed fibres/PP matrix the highest water resistance after the surface modifications of oil palm fibres were observed for silanization followed by PPgMA modified,  PPgMA blending and  propionylation.

The second part aimed at producing fully biodegradable biocomposites and analysing the resulting properties with respect to potential risk for biodegradation. Sisal fibres were incorporated in PLA and PHBV and the resulting risk for biodegradation using a fungus, Aspergillus niger, monitored. Neat PLA and PHBV were compared with the corresponding biocomposites and already without fibres both polymers were notably biodegraded by Aspergillus niger. The degree of biodegradation of PLA and PHBV matrices was related to the extent of the growth on the material surfaces. Adding sisal fibres gave a substantial increase in the growth on the surfaces of the biocomposites.

Correlating the type of surface modification of sisal fibres with degree of biodegradation, it was demonstrated that all chemically modified sisal/PLA biocomposites were less biodegraded than unmodified sisal biocomposites.  Propionylated sisal/PLA demonstrated the best resistance to biodegradation of all biocomposites while sisal/CA/PLA demonstrated high level of biodegradation after severe invasion by Aspergillus niger.

In general, the biodegradation correlated strongly with the degree of water absorption and surface modifications that increase the hydrophobicity is a route to improve the resistance to biodegradation.

Designing new biocomposites using renewable fibres and non-renewable and renewable matrices involve the balancing of the increase in mechanical properties, after improved adhesion between fibres and the polymer matrix, with the potential risk for biodegradation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. xi, 76 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2013:11
Keyword
agricultural fibres, biocomposites, renewable polymers, PP, PLA, PHBV, surface modifications, water uptake, microbial growth, biodegradation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-119915 (URN)978-91-7501-677-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-04-22, Q2, Osquldasväg 10 NB, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130325

Available from: 2013-03-25 Created: 2013-03-25 Last updated: 2013-03-26Bibliographically approved

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Strömberg, EmmaKarlsson, Sigbritt

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