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Micromechanical Tensile Testing of Cellulose-Reinforced Electrospun Fibers Using a Template Transfer Method (TTM)
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0236-5420
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5818-2378
Show others and affiliations
2012 (English)In: Journal of polymers and the environment, ISSN 1064-7546, E-ISSN 1572-8900, Vol. 20, no 4, 967-975 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A template transfer method (TTM) and a fiber fixation technique were established for fiber handling and micro tensile stage mounting of aligned and non-aligned electrospun fiber mats. The custom-made template had been precut to be mounted on a variety of collectors, including a rapidly rotating collector used to align the fibers. The method eliminated need for direct physical interaction with the fiber mats before or during the tensile testing since the fiber mats were never directly clamped or removed from the original substrate. By using the TTM it was possible to measure the tensile properties of aligned poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) fiber mats, which showed a 250 % increase in strength and 450 % increase in modulus as compared to a non-aligned system. The method was further evaluated for aligned PMMA fibers reinforced with cellulose (4 wt%) prepared as enzymatically derived nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). These fibers showed an additional increase of 30 % in both tensile strength and modulus, resulting in a toughness increase of 25 %. The fracture interfaces of the PMMA-NFC fibers showed a low amount of NFC pull-outs, indicating favorable phase compatibility. The presented fiber handling technique is universal and may be applied where conservative estimates of mechanical properties need to be assessed for very thin fibers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 20, no 4, 967-975 p.
Keyword [en]
Cellulose crystals (NFC), Electrospinning, Micro mechanical tensile testing, PMMA, Template transfer method (TTM)
National Category
Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-115467DOI: 10.1007/s10924-012-0486-6ISI: 000312402900009Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84871263311OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-115467DiVA: diva2:588845
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
Note

QC 20130116

Available from: 2013-01-16 Created: 2013-01-15 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Wood Nanocellulose Materials and Effects from Surface Modification of Nanoparticles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wood Nanocellulose Materials and Effects from Surface Modification of Nanoparticles
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Nanocellulose is an interesting natural material thatis gaining interest in the field of materials science, particularly nanocomposites. Depending on the disintegration route, nanocellulose can be isolated either in the form of long and flexible fibres (nanofibrillated cellulose, NFC), or stiff, rod-like crystals (cellulose nanocrystals, CNC). Nanocellulose can be utilized in nanocomposites either as a reinforcement element or as a network matrix due to its ability to form a strong network. In this thesis, nanocellulose based materials are prepared by evaporation of a liquid medium. The key step in this processing route is a good dispersion of the nanoparticles in the selected matrix. Therefore the importance of surface modification in order to ensure favourable nanocellulose dispersion is clarified in avariety of materials systems.

In Paper I, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based fibres prepared by electrospinning were reinforced with nanofibrillated cellulose. Native NFC appeared to show a good compatibility with PMMA matrix in the electrospinning solution and resulting fibres. Furthermore, a new method for mechanical testing of mats with random fibre orientation as well as aligned fibres was developed.

In Paper II, commingled nanopaper structures with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared. Several surfactants were used to disperse hydrophobic CNTs in water. A nonylphenol phosphate ester (NPPE) was found to work well for both dispersing CNTs in water and providing compatibility with NFC through electrostatic repulsion between the phosphate ester groups of the surfactant and the carboxylate groups of NFC.

In Paper III, a new water based route for functionalization of cellulose nanocrystals was developed. In this approach, inspired by organo-modified layered silicates, quaternary ammonium salts were adsorbed. It was demonstrated that different functionalities (alkyl, phenyl, glycidylor diallyl) can be introduced onto the cellulose and the dispersibility in organic solvents was studied. Subsequently, in Paper IV, nanocomposites with poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc)were prepared. The effect of modification on the degree of dispersion of the CNC within the matrix was studied as well as the strong effects on the properties of the resulting nanocomposites.

In Paper V, taking advantage of the entangled NFC network and the possibility to tailor the pore size and surface chemistry, lubricant-infused slippery films and coatings based on NFC were prepared for the first time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. 55 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2013:40
Keyword
Nanocellulose, nanoc omposite, dispersion, surface modification, surfa ctant, poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(vinyl acetate), carbon nanotubes, electrospinning, lubricant - infused surfaces
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-131469 (URN)978-91-7501-866-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-11-01, F3, Lindstetsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20131016

Available from: 2013-10-16 Created: 2013-10-16 Last updated: 2013-10-16Bibliographically approved
2. Structural properties and micromechanics of PMMA-based electrospun hybrid fibers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural properties and micromechanics of PMMA-based electrospun hybrid fibers
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. x, 28 p.
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2013:42
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133788 (URN)978-91-7501-876-8 (ISBN)
Presentation
2013-10-24, B2, Brinellvägen 23, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20131111

Available from: 2013-11-11 Created: 2013-11-11 Last updated: 2015-08-21Bibliographically approved
3. Micromechanical, Antimicrobial and Filtration Properties of Electrospun Fiber Mats
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Micromechanical, Antimicrobial and Filtration Properties of Electrospun Fiber Mats
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. xiv, 67 p.
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2014:47
National Category
Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-156091 (URN)978-91-7595-320-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-11, K1, Teknikringen 56, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20141121

Available from: 2014-11-21 Created: 2014-11-21 Last updated: 2015-08-21Bibliographically approved

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Andersson, Richard L.Berglund, Lars A.

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