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Space-Time Clusters of crime in Stockholm, Sweden
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5302-1698
2012 (English)In: Review of European Studies, ISSN 1918-7173, E-ISSN 1918-7181, Vol. 4, no 5, 148-156 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the study is to detect geographical clustering of offences over time using Kulldorff’s scan test(SaTScan version 9.01; Kulldorff, 2010) and police recorded data over Stockholm city, the capital of Sweden.This technique has a rigorous inference theory for identifying statistically significant clusters. The space–timescan statistics are used in a single retrospective analysis using data from 1st January 2006 to 31st December2009. A four years’ dataset is collapsed into ‘one year’. All space-time dimensions of the data are kept except‘year’. Clusters over the hours of the day, weekday and weekend and by seasons were tested. Total populationbut also day-time and night-time populations were used as reference. Findings show clear distinct patterns ofconcentration for violence (assault and threat) and property crimes (theft, robbery and burglary) over time andspace. Whilst property crimes tend to happen more often in the afternoons in the center and regional commercialcenters in the southern and western parts of Stockholm, violence takes place more often in the night, and isheavily concentrated in large parts of the city center. Weekends are more targeted than weekdays for bothoffences. Regardless of day of the week, the main urban core of the city contains the most likely cluster thatextends to commercial and socially disorganized areas in the west and south Stockholm. Whilst property crimelevels do not show significant differences over the seasons, violent crimes levels do (winter and summer). Themost likely clusters tend to be fairly constant in space over time. The article ends with implications of the resultsfor both research and practice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 4, no 5, 148-156 p.
Keyword [en]
spatial concentration, space-time cluster, poisson discrete model, violent and property offences
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-117897DOI: 10.5539/res.v4n5p148Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84873892974OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-117897DiVA: diva2:603626
Conference
1st Conference on Spatial Statistics 2011. Mapping Global Change. 23-25 March 2011, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands
Projects
Safety in transport nodes: the influence of environmental attributes on crime and preceived safety
Note

QC 20130211

Available from: 2013-02-06 Created: 2013-02-06 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Clusters of urban crime and safety in transport nodes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Clusters of urban crime and safety in transport nodes
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The objective of the thesis is to provide a better understanding of the safety conditions inurban environments, particularly related to those found in transport nodes, in this case,underground stations, and surrounding areas1. First, the study starts with an analysis of theoverall city, identifying concentrations of crime in the urban fabric and then focusing on thecriminogenic conditions at and around underground stations. The analysis combines the useof Geographical Information Systems (GIS), statistical techniques and data of different typesand sources. Regression models were used to assess the importance of the environmentalattributes of underground stations on crime rates. Findings show that violent and propertycrimes show different hotspots at different times. Crime patterns tend to follow people’sscheduled patterns of routine activity. The socio-economic composition of the surroundingenvironment of the stations has a significant impact on crime at these transport nodes, butmore important were attributes of the physical and social environment at the stations. Forinstance, low guardianship and poor visibility at the stations together with mixed land-usesin the surrounding areas induced crime rates at the stations. It is therefore suggested thatintervention to improve safety conditions at the stations should focus on a holistic approach,taking into account the station and surrounding areas, but also being aware of crimevariation on specific places at specific times.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. 34 p.
Series
TRITA-FOB
Series
Trita-FOB-Lic, 2013:2
Keyword
safety, urban crime, space-time clusters, crime concentrations, GIS, environmental attributes, public transport, underground stations, transport nodes, crime prevention
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-117906 (URN)978-91-85783-27-4 (ISBN)
Presentation
2013-03-01, V3, Teknikringen 72, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Safety in transport nodes: the influence of environmental attributes on crime and perceived safety
Note

QC 20130207

Available from: 2013-02-07 Created: 2013-02-06 Last updated: 2013-02-07Bibliographically approved
2. Crime Clusters and Safety in Underground Stations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Crime Clusters and Safety in Underground Stations
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The objective of the thesis is to explore ways to assess safety in an urban context and intransport nodes. The thesis is composed of articles which aim at assessing whether safety levels vary within a city, at a public transportation network, particularly at stations, and finally making suggestions to increase safety in these environments. The analysis makes use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), statistical techniques and combines several different data sources. Fieldwork supports the data sources by presenting an investigation of the current environment at and around the underground stations in Stockholm. Regression models were used to assess the (strength) relationships between levels of crime and the socialand physical environment at underground stations.

Findings show that urban crime in Stockholm municipality concentrates in stable hotspots, however, varying by type of crime, in different places at different times. A majority of the hotspots were located close to underground stations. The environment at underground stations has a significant impact on the crime levels at these transport nodes. For instance, low guardianship opportunities were related with higher crime rates, while well-illuminated and open stations showed lower crime rates. An open lay-out would provide better opportunities for guardianship, which in turn may decrease crime levels. The surrounding socio-economic composition of neighborhoods and the physical and social environment surrounding the stations affected crime levels similarly. For instance, mixed land-uses surrounding the station could be linked to increased crime rates. However, crime levels showed a varying distribution over time and space. Different stations showed different levels of crime at different times of the day, moreover, this also showed to be depended on crime type. For instance, theft wouldconcentrate at central stations at peak hours, when it is most crowded. The results include suggestions for policymakers and organizations dealing with urban safety, planning and public transportation, such as police, transportation companies and municipal planners.

The results suggest that crime interventions should take into account the dynamic patterns of crime and adopt a more holistic approach taking into account the station and its surroundings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. 42 p.
Series
TRITA-KTH-CEFIN-DT, ISSN 1654-9376 ; 09
Keyword
Safety, urban crime, crime distribution, spatial-temproal patterns, underground stations, public transport, environmental attributes, crime prevention
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Real Estate and Construction Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-141168 (URN)978-91-87111-95-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-02-28, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Safety in Transport Nodes: The Influence of Environmental Attrivutes on Crime and Perceived Safety
Note

QC 20140211

Available from: 2014-02-11 Created: 2014-02-10 Last updated: 2014-02-11Bibliographically approved

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