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Clusters of urban crime and safety in transport nodes
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The objective of the thesis is to provide a better understanding of the safety conditions inurban environments, particularly related to those found in transport nodes, in this case,underground stations, and surrounding areas1. First, the study starts with an analysis of theoverall city, identifying concentrations of crime in the urban fabric and then focusing on thecriminogenic conditions at and around underground stations. The analysis combines the useof Geographical Information Systems (GIS), statistical techniques and data of different typesand sources. Regression models were used to assess the importance of the environmentalattributes of underground stations on crime rates. Findings show that violent and propertycrimes show different hotspots at different times. Crime patterns tend to follow people’sscheduled patterns of routine activity. The socio-economic composition of the surroundingenvironment of the stations has a significant impact on crime at these transport nodes, butmore important were attributes of the physical and social environment at the stations. Forinstance, low guardianship and poor visibility at the stations together with mixed land-usesin the surrounding areas induced crime rates at the stations. It is therefore suggested thatintervention to improve safety conditions at the stations should focus on a holistic approach,taking into account the station and surrounding areas, but also being aware of crimevariation on specific places at specific times.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , 34 p.
Series
TRITA-FOB
Series
Trita-FOB-Lic, 2013:2
Keyword [en]
safety, urban crime, space-time clusters, crime concentrations, GIS, environmental attributes, public transport, underground stations, transport nodes, crime prevention
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-117906ISBN: 978-91-85783-27-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-117906DiVA: diva2:603657
Presentation
2013-03-01, V3, Teknikringen 72, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Safety in transport nodes: the influence of environmental attributes on crime and perceived safety
Note

QC 20130207

Available from: 2013-02-07 Created: 2013-02-06 Last updated: 2013-02-07Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Space-Time Clusters of crime in Stockholm, Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Space-Time Clusters of crime in Stockholm, Sweden
2012 (English)In: Review of European Studies, ISSN 1918-7173, E-ISSN 1918-7181, Vol. 4, no 5, 148-156 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the study is to detect geographical clustering of offences over time using Kulldorff’s scan test(SaTScan version 9.01; Kulldorff, 2010) and police recorded data over Stockholm city, the capital of Sweden.This technique has a rigorous inference theory for identifying statistically significant clusters. The space–timescan statistics are used in a single retrospective analysis using data from 1st January 2006 to 31st December2009. A four years’ dataset is collapsed into ‘one year’. All space-time dimensions of the data are kept except‘year’. Clusters over the hours of the day, weekday and weekend and by seasons were tested. Total populationbut also day-time and night-time populations were used as reference. Findings show clear distinct patterns ofconcentration for violence (assault and threat) and property crimes (theft, robbery and burglary) over time andspace. Whilst property crimes tend to happen more often in the afternoons in the center and regional commercialcenters in the southern and western parts of Stockholm, violence takes place more often in the night, and isheavily concentrated in large parts of the city center. Weekends are more targeted than weekdays for bothoffences. Regardless of day of the week, the main urban core of the city contains the most likely cluster thatextends to commercial and socially disorganized areas in the west and south Stockholm. Whilst property crimelevels do not show significant differences over the seasons, violent crimes levels do (winter and summer). Themost likely clusters tend to be fairly constant in space over time. The article ends with implications of the resultsfor both research and practice.

Keyword
spatial concentration, space-time cluster, poisson discrete model, violent and property offences
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-117897 (URN)10.5539/res.v4n5p148 (DOI)2-s2.0-84873892974 (Scopus ID)
Conference
1st Conference on Spatial Statistics 2011. Mapping Global Change. 23-25 March 2011, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands
Projects
Safety in transport nodes: the influence of environmental attributes on crime and preceived safety
Note

QC 20130211

Available from: 2013-02-06 Created: 2013-02-06 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Security in Stockholm's underground stations: The importance of environmental attributes and context
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Security in Stockholm's underground stations: The importance of environmental attributes and context
2013 (English)In: Security Journal, ISSN 0955-1662, E-ISSN 1743-4645, Vol. 26, no 1, 33-59 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this article is to report on the security conditions in underground stations and surrounding areas in Stockholm, the capital of Sweden. The study is based on a comprehensive fieldwork combined with Geographical Information Systems techniques and regression models. Findings show that a relatively small share of reported events is crime; acts of public disorder are more common at the stations. Events tend to happen in the evenings - nights, holidays and weekends - and, at least for theft, in the hotter months of the year. Although the highest number of events is found in the central station, the so-called 'end-stations' show often higher rates than those located in the inner city. Results show that opportunities for crime are dependent on stations' environmental attributes, type of neighbourhood in which they are located and city context. These findings lend weight to principles of traditional urban criminology theory such as routine activity and social disorganisation. The article concludes with directions for future research and suggestions for policy.

Keyword
crime and disorder, transport nodes, GIS, regression models, Scandinavian capital
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-61265 (URN)10.1057/sj.2011.32 (DOI)000313745200003 ()2-s2.0-84872438643 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Safety in Stockholm´s undergroundstations: The importance of environmental attributes and context
Note

QC 20130204

Available from: 2012-01-17 Created: 2012-01-17 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
3. Safety in Stockholm's Underground Stations: An Agenda for Action
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safety in Stockholm's Underground Stations: An Agenda for Action
2014 (English)In: European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, ISSN 0928-1371, E-ISSN 1572-9869, Vol. 20, no 1, 73-100 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this article is to propose an agenda for interventions to prevent or reduce crime and disorder at underground stations in Stockholm, the capital of Sweden. The article first reports the nature, the levels, and the patterns of crime and disorder across time and space. Different types of crime are analyzed and specific conclusions are drawn for each type of crime which relate to the suggested interventions presented in this article. Findings lend weight to principles of situational crime prevention to improve security in transport nodes, with overlaps with routine activity and social disorganization theories. Intervention measures comprehend suggestions on both environmental design related changes and more complex social aspects regarding the reduction of crime at transport nodes. Suggestions for interventions at Stockholm's underground stations, as presented here, constitute an illustration of what can be achieved with situational crime prevention principles; however, they may not be regarded as a "one-size-fits-all" solution to the demands and challenges of safety in transport nodes elsewhere.

Keyword
transport nodes, crime prevention, safety, underground stations, Stockholm
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-117901 (URN)10.1007/s10610-013-9212-8 (DOI)000332015600004 ()2-s2.0-84894293117 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Safety in transport nodes: the influence of environmental attributes on crime and perceived safety
Note

QC 20140328

Available from: 2013-02-06 Created: 2013-02-06 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
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  • de-DE
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Output format
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