Fluoride in groundwater, dates and wheat: Estimated exposure dose in the population of Bushehr, Iran
2013 (English)In: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, ISSN 0889-1575, E-ISSN 1096-0481, Vol. 29, no 2, 94-99 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The goal of this study was to estimate the daily fluoride intake for residents of Bushehr province in southern Iran by determining their exposure to fluoride through consumption of drinking water, dates and wheat. The fluoride concentration of drinking water in this region varies between 0.5 and 3.0mg/L, with an average of 1.6mg/L; and 44.4% of the drinking water exceed the guideline value of 1.5mg/L recommended by WHO. The average fluoride content of dates is 10.0mg/kg; whereas wheat roots and shoots contain an average of 30.0 and 19.0mgF-/kg, respectively. The estimated intake from drinking water is 0.12mg/kg/d for children (20kg body weight) and 0.05mg/kg/d for adults (70kg body weight). The total estimated fluoride intake (from drinking water and dates) for children is 0.17mg/kg/d. Thus, dates contribute an average 30% to the daily fluoride intake in the population. The maximum estimated fluoride intake (from dates and drinking water) for children and adults are 3.4 and 1.6 times higher, respectively, than the minimum risk level of 0.05mg/kg/d calculated by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 29, no 2, 94-99 p.
Dietary intake, Drinking water, Exposure dose, Food analysis, Food composition, Food safety, Iran, Staple food
Water Engineering Environmental Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-118294DOI: 10.1016/j.jfca.2012.08.001ISI: 000315429100002ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84872435669OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-118294DiVA: diva2:605776
QC 201302152013-02-152013-02-142013-04-02Bibliographically approved