The hybrid reactor project based on the straight field line mirror concept
2012 (English)In: Fusion For Neutrons And Subcritical Nuclear Fission / [ed] Kallne, J; Ryutov, D; Gorini, G; Sozzi, C; Tardocchi, M, American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2012, 173-185 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
The straight field line mirror (SFLM) concept is aiming towards a steady-state compact fusion neutron source. Besides the possibility for steady state operation for a year or more, the geometry is chosen to avoid high loads on materials and plasma facing components. A comparatively small fusion hybrid device with "semi-poor" plasma confinement (with a low fusion Q factor) may be developed for industrial transmutation and energy production from spent nuclear fuel. This opportunity arises from a large fission to fusion energy multiplication ratio, Qr=Pfis/P fus>>1. The upper bound on Qr is primarily determined by geometry and reactor safety. For the SFLM, the upper bound is Qr≈150, corresponding to a neutron multiplicity of k eff=0.97. Power production in a mirror hybrid is predicted for a substantially lower electron temperature than the requirement T e≈10 keV for a fusion reactor. Power production in the SFLM seems possible with Q≈0.15, which is 10 times lower than typically anticipated for hybrids (and 100 times smaller than required for a fusion reactor). This relaxes plasma confinement demands, and broadens the range for use of plasmas with supra-thermal ions in hybrid reactors. The SFLM concept is based on a mirror machine stabilized by qudrupolar magnetic fields and large expander tanks beyond the confinement region. The purpose of the expander tanks is to distribute axial plasma loss flow over a sufficiently large area so that the receiving plates can withstand the heat. Plasma stability is not relying on a plasma flow into the expander regions. With a suppressed plasma flow into the expander tanks, a possibility arise for higher electron temperature. A brief presentation will be given on basic theory for the SFLM with plasma stability and electron temperature issues, RF heating computations with sloshing ion formation, neutron transport computations with reactor safety margins and material load estimates, magnetic coil designs as well as a discussion on the implications of the geometry for possible diagnostics. Reactor safety issues are addressed and a vertical orientation of the device could assist passive coolant circulation. Specific attention is put to a device with a 25 m long confinement region and 40 cm plasma radius in the mid-plane. In an optimal case (keff = 0.97) with a fusion power of only 10 MW, such a device may be capable of producing a power of 1.5 GWth.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2012. 173-185 p.
, AIP Conference Proceedings, ISSN 0094-243X ; 1442
hybrid reactor, Mirror machine, neutron source
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-118416DOI: 10.1063/1.4706867ISI: 000306895100020ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84873037408ISBN: 978-0-7354-1038-1OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-118416DiVA: diva2:606066
International Conference on Fusion for Neutrons and Subcritical Nuclear Fission, 12 September 2011 through 15 September 2011, Varenna
QC 201302182013-02-182013-02-182013-02-18Bibliographically approved