Reactions of aqueous radiolysis products with oxide surfaces: An experimental and DFT study
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The reactions between aqueous radiolysis products and oxide surfaces are important in nuclear technology in many ways. In solid-liquid systems, they affect (and at the same time are dependent on) both the solution chemistry and the stability of materials under the influence of ionizing radiation. The stability of surface oxides is a factor that determines the longevity of the materials where such oxides are formed. Additionally, the aqueous radiolysis products are responsible for corrosion and erosion of the materials.
In this study, the reactions between radiolysis products of water – mainly H2O2 and HO radicals – with metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides are investigated. For this, experimental and computational chemistry methods are employed. For the experimental study of these systems it was necessary to implement new methodologies especially for the study of the reactive species – the HO radicals. Similarly, the computational study also required the development of models and benchmarking of methods. The experiments combined with the computational chemistry studies produced valuable kinetic, energetic and mechanistic data.
It is demonstrated here that the HO radicals are a primary product of the decomposition of H2O2. For all the materials, the catalytic decomposition of H2O2 consists first of molecular adsorption onto the surfaces of the oxides. This step is followed by the cleavage of the O-O bond in H2O2 to form HO radicals. The HO radicals are able to react further with the hydroxylated surfaces of the oxides to form water and a surface bound HO• center. The dynamics of formation of HO• vary widely for the different materials studied. These differences are also observed in the activation energies and kinetics for decomposition of H2O2. It is found further that the removal of HO• from the system where H2O2 undergoes decomposition, by means of a scavenger, leads to the spontaneous formation of H2.
The combined theoretical-experimental methodology led to mechanistic understanding of the reactivity of the oxide materials towards H2O2 and HO radicals. This reactivity can be expressed in terms of fundamental properties of the cations present in the oxides. Correlations were found between several properties of the metal cations present in the oxides and adsorption energies of H2O, adsorption energies of HO radicals and energy barriers for H2O2 decomposition. This knowledge can aid in improving materials and processes important for nuclear technological systems, catalysis, and energy storage, and also help to better understand geochemical processes.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , 121 p.
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2013:12
hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen production, metal, oxides, lanthanide, catalysis, density functional theory, surface, reactions, chemistry
Physical Chemistry Materials Chemistry Theoretical Chemistry
Research subject SRA - Energy; SRA - Production
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-119780ISBN: 978-91-7501-683-2OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-119780DiVA: diva2:612445
2013-04-12, K2, Teknikringen 28, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Renault, Jean-Philippe, Dr.
Jonsson, Mats, Professor
FunderStandUpXPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
QC 201303222013-03-222013-03-212013-03-22Bibliographically approved
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