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Wafer-scale Vacuum and Liquid Packaging Concepts for an Optical Thin-film Gas Sensor
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis treats the development of packaging and integration methods for the cost-efficient encapsulation and packaging of microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices. The packaging of MEMS devices is often more costly than the device itself, partly because the packaging can be crucial for the performance of the device. For devices which contain liquids or needs to be enclosed in a vacuum, the packaging can account for up to 80% of the total cost of the device.

The first part of this thesis presents the integration scheme for an optical dye thin film NO2-gas sensor, designed using cost-efficient implementations of wafer-scale methods. This work includes design and fabrication of photonic subcomponents in addition to the main effort of integration and packaging of the dye-film. A specific proof of concept target was for NO2 monitoring in a car tunnel.

The second part of this thesis deals with the wafer-scale packaging methods developed for the sensing device. The developed packaging method, based on low-temperature plastic deformation of gold sealing structures, is further demonstrated as a generic method for other hermetic liquid and vacuum packaging applications. In the developed packaging methods, the mechanically squeezed gold sealing material is both electroplated microstruc- tures and wire bonded stud bumps. The electroplated rings act like a more hermetic version of rubber sealing rings while compressed in conjunction with a cavity forming wafer bonding process. The stud bump sealing processes is on the other hand applied on completed cavities with narrow access ports, to seal either a vacuum or liquid inside the cavities at room temperature. Additionally, the resulting hermeticity of primarily the vacuum sealing methods is thoroughly investigated.

Two of the sealing methods presented require permanent mechanical fixation in order to complete the packaging process. Two solutions to this problem are presented in this thesis. First, a more traditional wafer bonding method using tin-soldering is demonstrated. Second, a novel full-wafer epoxy underfill-process using a microfluidic distribution network is demonstrated using a room temperature process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , ix, 65 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2013:010
Keyword [en]
Microelectromechanical systems, MEMS, Nanoelectromechanical systems, NEMS, silicon, wafer-level, packaging, vacuum packaging, liquid encapsulation, integration, wire bonding, grating coupler, waveguide, Fabry-Perot resonator
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-119839ISBN: 978-91-7501-676-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-119839DiVA: diva2:612678
Public defence
2013-04-19, Q2, Osquldas Väg 10, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130325

Available from: 2013-03-25 Created: 2013-03-24 Last updated: 2013-03-25Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Transparent Nanometric Organic Luminescent Films as UV-Active Components in Photonic Structures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transparent Nanometric Organic Luminescent Films as UV-Active Components in Photonic Structures
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2011 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 23, no 6, 761-765 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new kind of visible-blind organic thin-film material, consisting of a polymeric matrix with a high concentration of embedded 3-hydroxyflavone (3HF) dye molecules, that absorbs UV light and emits green light is presented. The thin films can be grown on sensitive substrates, including flexible polymers and paper. Their suitability as photonic active components in photonic devices is demonstrated.

Keyword
organic luminescent films, resonant photonic structures, thin films, UV wavelength shifting, wafer scale integration
National Category
Physical Chemistry Materials Engineering Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-31026 (URN)10.1002/adma.201003088 (DOI)000287101500008 ()2-s2.0-79551564519 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20110307Available from: 2011-03-07 Created: 2011-03-07 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
2. An apodized SOI waveguide-to-fiber surface grating coupler for single lithography silicon photonics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An apodized SOI waveguide-to-fiber surface grating coupler for single lithography silicon photonics
2011 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 19, no 4, 3592-3598 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of a grating for coupling between a single mode silica fiber and the TE mode in a silicon photonic waveguide on a silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate. The grating is etched completely through the silicon device layer, thus permitting the fabrication of through-etched surface coupled silicon nanophotonic circuits in a single lithography step. Furthermore, the grating is apodized to match the diffracted wave to the mode profile of the fiber. We experimentally demonstrate a coupling efficiency of 35% with a 1 dB bandwidth of 47 nm at 1536 nm on a standard SOI substrate. Furthermore, we show by simulation that with an optimized buried oxide thickness, a coupling efficiency of 72% and a 1 dB bandwidth of 38 nm at 1550 nm is achievable. This is, to our knowledge, the highest simulated coupling efficiency for single-etch TE-mode grating couplers. In particular, simulations show that apodizing a conventional periodic through-etched grating decreases the back-reflection into the waveguide from 21% to 0.1%.

Keyword
1550 nm, Apodizing, Buried oxide thickness, Coupling efficiency, Diffracted waves, Etched gratings, Etched surface, Fiber surface, Grating couplers, Mode profiles, Nanophotonic circuits, Silica fibers, Silicon devices, Silicon photonics, Silicon-on-insulator substrates, Single mode, SOI substrates, SOI waveguides, TE mode, Coupled circuits, Lithography, Nanophotonics, Photonic devices, Silica
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32605 (URN)10.1364/OE.19.003592 (DOI)000288860000078 ()2-s2.0-79951642749 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20110419Available from: 2011-04-19 Created: 2011-04-18 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
3. A photonic dye-based sensing system on a chip produced at wafer scale
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A photonic dye-based sensing system on a chip produced at wafer scale
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(English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-119837 (URN)
Note

QS 2013

Available from: 2013-03-24 Created: 2013-03-24 Last updated: 2013-03-25Bibliographically approved
4. Wafer-Level capping and sealing of heat sensitive substances and liquids with gold gaskets
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wafer-Level capping and sealing of heat sensitive substances and liquids with gold gaskets
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2013 (English)In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 201, 154-163 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reports on a novel wafer-level packaging method employing gold gaskets and an epoxy underfill. The packaging is done at room-temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mild packaging conditions allow the encapsulation of sensitive devices. The method is demonstrated for two applications; the wafer-level encapsulation of a liquid and the wafer-level packaging of a photonic gas sensor containing heat sensitive dye-films.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keyword
Wafer-level packaging, Liquid sealing, Room-temperature, Underfill application, Gasket
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-119838 (URN)10.1016/j.sna.2013.07.007 (DOI)000325836400020 ()2-s2.0-84881511190 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Phodye
Funder
EU, European Research Council
Note

QC 20131129

Available from: 2013-03-24 Created: 2013-03-24 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
5. Hermetic integration of liquids using high-speed stud bump bonding for cavity sealing at the wafer level
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hermetic integration of liquids using high-speed stud bump bonding for cavity sealing at the wafer level
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2012 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 22, no 4, 045021- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reports a novel room-temperature hermetic liquid sealing process where the access ports of liquid-filled cavities are sealed with wire-bonded stud bumps. This process enables liquids to be integrated at the fabrication stage. Evaluation cavities were manufactured and used to investigate the mechanical and hermetic properties of the seals. Measurements on the successfully sealed structures show a helium leak rate of better than 10 (10) mbarL s (1), in addition to a zero liquid loss over two months during storage near boiling temperature. The bond strength of the plugs was similar to standard wire bonds on flat surfaces.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-95264 (URN)10.1088/0960-1317/22/4/045021 (DOI)000303196900021 ()
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 267528
Note
QC 20120521Available from: 2012-05-21 Created: 2012-05-21 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
6. Small footprint wafer-level vacuum packaging using compressible gold sealing rings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Small footprint wafer-level vacuum packaging using compressible gold sealing rings
2011 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 21, no 8, 085011- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel low-temperature wafer-level vacuum packaging process is presented. The process uses plastically deformed gold rings as sealing structures in combination with flux-free soldering to provide the bond force for a sealing wafer. This process enables the separation of the sealing and the bonding functions both spatially on the wafer and temporally in different process steps, which results in reduced areas for the sealing rings and prevents outgassing from the solder process in the cavity. This enables space savings and yields improvements. We show the experimental result of the hermetic sealing. The leak rate into the packages is determined, by measuring the package lid deformation over 10 months, to be lower than 3.5 x 10(-13) mbar l s(-1), which is suitable for most MEMS packages. The pressure inside the produced packages is measured to be lower than 10 mbar.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-37545 (URN)10.1088/0960-1317/21/8/085011 (DOI)000293163700011 ()2-s2.0-80051509093 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20110816Available from: 2011-08-16 Created: 2011-08-15 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
7. Wafer-Level Vacuum Sealing by Coining of Wire Bonded Gold Bumps
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wafer-Level Vacuum Sealing by Coining of Wire Bonded Gold Bumps
Show others...
2013 (English)In: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 22, no 6, 1347-1353 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reports on the investigation of a novel room-temperature vacuum sealing method based on compressing wire bonded gold bumps which are placed to partially overlap the access ports into the cavity. The bump compression, which is done under vacuum, causes a material flow into the access ports, thereby hermetically sealing a vacuum inside the cavities. The sealed cavity pressure was measured by residual gas analysis to 8x10(-4) mbar two weeks after sealing. The residual gas content was found to be mainly argon, which indicates the source as outgassing inside the cavity and no measurable external leak. The seals are found to be mechanically robust and easily implemented by the use of standard commercial tools and processes.

Keyword
Vacuum, packaging, MEMS, wire bonding, sealing, hermetic
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-106203 (URN)10.1109/JMEMS.2013.2262594 (DOI)000328047300012 ()2-s2.0-84897679362 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 267528
Note

QC 20140108. Updated from submitted to published.

Available from: 2012-11-29 Created: 2012-11-29 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved

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