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Flexible and strong ternary blends of poly(vinyl chloride), poly(butylene adipate)and nanoparticle-plasticizers
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7790-8987
2013 (English)In: Materials Chemistry and Physics, ISSN 0254-0584, E-ISSN 1879-3312, Vol. 139, no 2-3, 734-740 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Multiple property enhancement was achieved for ternary blends of PVC, poly(butylene adipate) (PBA) plasticizer and PBA-grafted nanofillers as compared to ternary blends with untreated nanofillers. The blends with surface modified halloysite, kaolin or silicon dioxide nanofillers all exhibited higher stress at break and higher strain at break as compared to the corresponding composites with untreated nanoparticles. The strain at break was similar or improved compared to binary PVC/PBA blends. Most significant improvement was observed for the films containing surface treated halloysite nanofillers. Over 100% increase in stress at break and strain at break was obtained when compared to the corresponding nanocomposite containing untreated halloysite fillers. In addition to tensile testing the prepared films were characterized by DSC, SEM, TGA and FTIR imaging to evaluate the miscibility and thermal properties. Interestingly the FTIR imaging analysis revealed that the surface grafting of halloysite resulted not only in improved dispersion of halloysite filler, but also in more homogenous distribution of PBA plasticizer in the blends. During aging in contact with aqueous solution the films containing kaolin exhibited the smallest weight loss. This is explained by the plate like structure of kaolin which prevents the migration of PBA molecules.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 139, no 2-3, 734-740 p.
Keyword [en]
Polymers, Composite materials, Nanostructures, Mechanical properties, Ductility
National Category
Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-120097DOI: 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2013.02.023ISI: 000318453600057Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84875937845OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-120097DiVA: diva2:613389
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2007-5542
Note

QC 20130405. Updated from in press to published.

Available from: 2013-04-05 Created: 2013-03-27 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Functional PVC Additives: Core-Shell Nanoparticle and Renewable Resource Plasticizers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functional PVC Additives: Core-Shell Nanoparticle and Renewable Resource Plasticizers
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Several functional poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) additives were designed: PVC plasticizers made from renewable resources as alternatives to traditional phthalate plasticizers and core-shell nanoparticle-plasticizers with the aim to design an additive that can improve several mechanical properties simultaneously. Monomeric and oligomeric PVC plasticizers based of isosorbide and glucose were synthesized. Their structures and molecular weights were determined by SEC, NMR, FTIR and LDI-MS. PVC was blended with the different plasticizers and miscibility, mechanical properties and thermal properties of the blends were analyzed. PVC/isosorbide dihexanoate (SDH) films exhibited similar properties as PVC/diisooctyl phthalate (DIOP) blends. PVC films plasticized by oligo(isosorbide suberate) (OSS) and oligo(isosorbide adipate) (OSA) showed better thermal stability and higher mechanical strength, but lower strain compared to the PVC/DIOP and PVC/SDH blends. Glucose ester plasticizers with slightly different chemical structures were synthesized by applying different reaction times. Results revealed that the plasticization efficiency was improved by larger number of hexanoate units on the glucose ring. Altogether the glucose esters showed great potential as renewable PVC plasticizers.

Core-shell nanoparticle-plasticizers were designed with the aim to simultaneously improve both the stiffness and toughness of the materials. Halloysite, kaolin and silicon dioxide nanoparticles were surface-grafted by poly(butylene adipate) (PBA). The surface-grafting was confirmed by FTIR and the amount of grafting was determined by TGA. PVC/nanoparticles binary blends and PVC/PBA/nanoparticle ternary blends were prepared by solution casting. The dispersion of nanoparticles in the PVC matrix, as observed by SEM, was remarkably improved by the surface-grafting. The tensile stress at break for the PVC films containing 5 wt-% surface-treated halloysite nanoparticles (St-Halloy-5) increased 15 % compared with the material containing same amount of untreated halloysite nanoparticles (untreated Halloy-5) films. The St-Halloy-5 films also exhibited 30 times higher strain at break values compared to untreated Halloy-5 films. The PVC films containing 5 wt-% surface-treated silicon dioxide nanoparticles (St-SiO2-5) exhibited remarkably higher strain at break values even though the strength was slightly lower compared to the material with same amount untreated SiO2 particles. The nanoparticle surface treatment also improved the mechanical properties of PVC/PBA/nanoparticle ternary blends. PBA/St-Halloy exhibited most obvious improvement compared to PBA/Halloy, the values increased more than 100% for both stress at break and strain at break The results show that the designed nanoparticle-plasticizers could simultaneous improve the stiffness and toughness of PVC materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. 62 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2013:16
Keyword
PVC, nanocomposite, nanoparticle, core-shell, plasticizer, renewable resources, isosorbide, glucose
National Category
Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-120100 (URN)978-91-7501-693-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-04-19, K2, Teknikringen 28, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130402

Available from: 2013-04-02 Created: 2013-03-27 Last updated: 2013-04-02Bibliographically approved

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Hakkarainen, Minna

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