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Preparation and Characterization of Electrochemical Devices for Energy Storage and Debonding
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Within the framework of this thesis, three innovative electrochemical devices have been studied. A part of the work is devoted to an already existing device, laminates which are debonded by the application of a voltage. This type of material can potentially be used in a wide range of applications, including adhesive joints in vehicles to both reduce the total weight and to simplify the disassembly after end-of-life, enabling an inexpensive recycling process. Although already a functioning device, the development and tailoring of this process was slowed by a lack of knowledge concerning the actual electrochemical processes responsible for the debonding. The laminate studied consisted of an epoxy adhesive, mixed with an ionic liquid, bonding two aluminium foils. The results showed that the electrochemical reaction taking place at the releasing anode interface caused a very large increase in potential during galvanostatic polarization. Scanning electron microscopy images showed reaction products growing out from the electrode surface into the adhesive. These reaction products were believed to cause the debonding through swelling of the anodic interface so rupturing the adhesive bond.

The other part of the work in this thesis was aimed at innovative lithium ion (Li‑ion) battery concepts. Commercial Li-ion batteries are two-dimensional thin film constructions utilized in most often mechanically rigid products. Two routes were followed in this thesis. In the first, the aim was flexible batteries that could be used in applications such as bendable reading devices. For this purpose, nano-fibrillated cellulose was used as binder material to make flexible battery components. This was achieved through a water-based filtration process, creating flexible and strong papers. These paper-based battery components showed good mechanical properties as well as good rate capabilities during cycling. The drawback using this method was relatively low coulombic efficiencies believed to originate from side-reactions caused by water remnants in the cellulose structure. The second Li-ion battery route comprised an electrochemical process to coat carbon fibers, shown to perform well as negative electrode in Li-ion batteries, from a monomer solution. The resulting polymer coatings were ~500 nm thick and contained lithium ions. This process could be controlled by mainly salt content in the monomer solution and polarization time, yielding thin and apparently pin-hole free coatings. By utilizing the carbon fiber/polymer composite as integrated electrode and electrolyte, a variety of battery designs could possibly be created, such as three-dimensional batteries and structural batteries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , 71 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2013:13
Keyword [en]
adhesives, carbon fiber, debonding, delamination, electropolymerization, flexible battery, lithium-ion battery, paper battery
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-120199ISBN: 978-91-7501-685-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-120199DiVA: diva2:613847
Public defence
2013-04-18, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130403

Available from: 2013-04-03 Created: 2013-04-02 Last updated: 2013-04-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Electrochemical characterization of electrically induced adhesive debonding
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrochemical characterization of electrically induced adhesive debonding
2011 (English)In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 158, no 10, P109-P114 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study concerns with controlled debonding of adhesive generated with electricity. This is a concept which could potentially be used in a wide range of applications, such as light-weight automotives, which can be easily recyclable at the touch of a button. The studied material is produced as a laminate with an epoxy adhesive bonded between aluminium foils. An electrochemical investigation of these debonding adhesives was performed. A three-electrode system with a circular quasi-reference electrode was validated and used together with electrical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope. It was found that the resistance at the debonding anodic interface of the laminate increased during polarization. This increase in resistance was shown to be reversible at open circuit. During the polarization, aluminium compounds were produced at the anode. These compounds grew to penetrate the adhesive. A debonding mechanism based on increasing mechanical stresses at the anodic interface is proposed.

Keyword
adhesive bonding, aluminium, anodes, electric resistance, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, internal stresses, laminates, resins, scanning electron microscopy
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27758 (URN)10.1149/1.3622657 (DOI)000294063000082 ()2-s2.0-80052091897 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160427

Available from: 2010-12-22 Created: 2010-12-22 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
2. Electrolytically assisted debonding of adhesives: An experimental investigation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrolytically assisted debonding of adhesives: An experimental investigation
Show others...
2012 (English)In: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, ISSN 0143-7496, E-ISSN 1879-0127, Vol. 32, 39-45 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The technology of electrically assisted delamination has potential applications in many fields, such as easy-to-open consumer packaging and recycling of lightweight materials. A better understanding about the mechanisms leading to debonding is important for further development of the technique, and is a goal of this study. A functional epoxy-based adhesive, applied between two aluminum foils, has been investigated using electrochemical and surface analytical techniques. Delamination occurred at the anodic adhesive boundary, which became acidic during polarization. The reactions during polarization of the laminates consisted of two steps, with aluminum oxide/hydroxide formation as the first and the build-up of a sulfur rich organic film as the second. Several possible debonding processes are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keyword
Aluminum and alloys, Delamination, Ionic liquid, Epoxy/epoxides
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-70028 (URN)10.1016/j.ijadhadh.2011.09.003 (DOI)000298776300004 ()2-s2.0-81955160681 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20120130

Available from: 2012-01-30 Created: 2012-01-30 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
3. Flexible nano-paper-based positive electrodes for Li-ion batteries- Preparation process and properties
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexible nano-paper-based positive electrodes for Li-ion batteries- Preparation process and properties
2013 (English)In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, Vol. 2, no 5, 794-800 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Flexible battery solutions is an emerging field due to a demand for bendable electronic devices. In this study, a route to make flexible positive electrodes for Li-ion batteries by utilizing nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) as binder material has been examined. These LiFePO4-based electrodes are made by filtration of a water dispersion of NFC, LiFePO4 and Super-P carbon particles, resembling a paper-making process. The resulting electrodes show good mechanical properties both dry as well as when soaked with battery electrolyte with a stress at break of typically at 5.2 and 2.2 MPa, respectively. The cycling performance was 151 mAh/g at C/10 and 132 mAh/g at 1C for samples dried at 170 degrees C. The drying temperature, after the filtration step, was found to be important and to affect both the mechanical properties, rendering the electrodes more ductile at lower temperatures, as well as the electrochemical properties, causing a higher coulombic efficiency at higher temperatures.

Keyword
Flexible, Fibrillated, Cellulose, Lithium-ion, Battery, Electrode
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-120223 (URN)10.1016/j.nanoen.2013.02.002 (DOI)000326134200026 ()2-s2.0-84885379138 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

QC 20131128. Updated from accepted to published.

Available from: 2013-04-03 Created: 2013-04-03 Last updated: 2013-11-28Bibliographically approved
4. Single-paper flexible Li-ion battery cells through a paper-making process based on nano-fibrillated cellulose
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Single-paper flexible Li-ion battery cells through a paper-making process based on nano-fibrillated cellulose
2013 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry, ISSN 0959-9428, E-ISSN 1364-5501, Vol. 1, no 15, 4671-4677 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recently, a need for mechanically flexible and strong batteries has arisen to power technical solutions such as active RFID tags and bendable reading devices. In this work, a method for making flexible and strong battery cells, integrated into a single flexible paper structure, is presented. Nano-fibrillated cellulose (NFC) is used both as electrode binder material and as separator material. The battery papers are made through a paper-making type process by sequential filtration of water dispersions containing the battery components. The resulting paper structure is thin, 250 mm, and strong with a strength at break of up to 5.6 MPa when soaked in battery electrolyte. The cycling performances are good with reversible capacities of 146 mA h g(-1) LiFePO4 at C/10 and 101 mA h g(-1) LiFePO4 at 1 C. This corresponds to an energy density of 188 mW h g(-1) of full paper battery at C/10.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
RSC Publishing, 2013
Keyword
Developmental Toxicity, Nanopaper Structures, N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone, Separators, Rats
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-120225 (URN)10.1039/C3TA01532G (DOI)000316282800009 ()2-s2.0-84876516991 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

QC 20130419

Available from: 2013-04-03 Created: 2013-04-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
5. Solid polymer electrolyte coated carbon fibres for batteries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solid polymer electrolyte coated carbon fibres for batteries
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-120228 (URN)
Note

QS 2013

Available from: 2013-04-03 Created: 2013-04-03 Last updated: 2013-04-03Bibliographically approved

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