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Single-paper flexible Li-ion battery cells through a paper-making process based on nano-fibrillated cellulose
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5816-2924
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9203-9313
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8622-0386
2013 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry, ISSN 0959-9428, E-ISSN 1364-5501, Vol. 1, no 15, 4671-4677 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recently, a need for mechanically flexible and strong batteries has arisen to power technical solutions such as active RFID tags and bendable reading devices. In this work, a method for making flexible and strong battery cells, integrated into a single flexible paper structure, is presented. Nano-fibrillated cellulose (NFC) is used both as electrode binder material and as separator material. The battery papers are made through a paper-making type process by sequential filtration of water dispersions containing the battery components. The resulting paper structure is thin, 250 mm, and strong with a strength at break of up to 5.6 MPa when soaked in battery electrolyte. The cycling performances are good with reversible capacities of 146 mA h g(-1) LiFePO4 at C/10 and 101 mA h g(-1) LiFePO4 at 1 C. This corresponds to an energy density of 188 mW h g(-1) of full paper battery at C/10.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
RSC Publishing, 2013. Vol. 1, no 15, 4671-4677 p.
Keyword [en]
Developmental Toxicity, Nanopaper Structures, N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone, Separators, Rats
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-120225DOI: 10.1039/C3TA01532GISI: 000316282800009Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84876516991OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-120225DiVA: diva2:613992
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

QC 20130419

Available from: 2013-04-03 Created: 2013-04-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Preparation and Characterization of Electrochemical Devices for Energy Storage and Debonding
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preparation and Characterization of Electrochemical Devices for Energy Storage and Debonding
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Within the framework of this thesis, three innovative electrochemical devices have been studied. A part of the work is devoted to an already existing device, laminates which are debonded by the application of a voltage. This type of material can potentially be used in a wide range of applications, including adhesive joints in vehicles to both reduce the total weight and to simplify the disassembly after end-of-life, enabling an inexpensive recycling process. Although already a functioning device, the development and tailoring of this process was slowed by a lack of knowledge concerning the actual electrochemical processes responsible for the debonding. The laminate studied consisted of an epoxy adhesive, mixed with an ionic liquid, bonding two aluminium foils. The results showed that the electrochemical reaction taking place at the releasing anode interface caused a very large increase in potential during galvanostatic polarization. Scanning electron microscopy images showed reaction products growing out from the electrode surface into the adhesive. These reaction products were believed to cause the debonding through swelling of the anodic interface so rupturing the adhesive bond.

The other part of the work in this thesis was aimed at innovative lithium ion (Li‑ion) battery concepts. Commercial Li-ion batteries are two-dimensional thin film constructions utilized in most often mechanically rigid products. Two routes were followed in this thesis. In the first, the aim was flexible batteries that could be used in applications such as bendable reading devices. For this purpose, nano-fibrillated cellulose was used as binder material to make flexible battery components. This was achieved through a water-based filtration process, creating flexible and strong papers. These paper-based battery components showed good mechanical properties as well as good rate capabilities during cycling. The drawback using this method was relatively low coulombic efficiencies believed to originate from side-reactions caused by water remnants in the cellulose structure. The second Li-ion battery route comprised an electrochemical process to coat carbon fibers, shown to perform well as negative electrode in Li-ion batteries, from a monomer solution. The resulting polymer coatings were ~500 nm thick and contained lithium ions. This process could be controlled by mainly salt content in the monomer solution and polarization time, yielding thin and apparently pin-hole free coatings. By utilizing the carbon fiber/polymer composite as integrated electrode and electrolyte, a variety of battery designs could possibly be created, such as three-dimensional batteries and structural batteries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. 71 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2013:13
Keyword
adhesives, carbon fiber, debonding, delamination, electropolymerization, flexible battery, lithium-ion battery, paper battery
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-120199 (URN)978-91-7501-685-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-04-18, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130403

Available from: 2013-04-03 Created: 2013-04-02 Last updated: 2013-04-03Bibliographically approved

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Cornell, AnnLindbergh, GöranWågberg, Lars

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