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A reference architecture for cooperative driving
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8629-0402
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4300-885X
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7048-0108
2013 (English)In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 59, no 10: Part C, 1095-1112 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cooperative driving systems enable vehicles to adapt their motion to the surrounding traffic situation by utilizing information communicated by other vehicles and infrastructure in the vicinity. How should these systems be designed and integrated into the modern automobile? What are the needed functions, key architectural elements and their relationships? We created a reference architecture that systematically answers these questions and validated it in real world usage scenarios. Key findings concern required services and enabling them via the architecture. We present the reference architecture and discuss how it can influence the design and implementation of such features in automotive systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 59, no 10: Part C, 1095-1112 p.
Keyword [en]
Automotive embedded application, Autonomous systems, Cooperative driving, Intelligent transportation systems, Reference architecture
National Category
Embedded Systems Computer Systems Control Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-120592DOI: 10.1016/j.sysarc.2013.05.014ISI: 000330090400007ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84888310995OAI: diva2:615861

Updated from "Submitted" to "Published". QC 20140120

Available from: 2013-04-12 Created: 2013-04-12 Last updated: 2015-12-16Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Architecting Autonomous Automotive Systems: With an emphasis on Cooperative Driving
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Architecting Autonomous Automotive Systems: With an emphasis on Cooperative Driving
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The increasing usage of electronics and software in a modern automobile enables realization of many advanced features. One such feature is autonomous driving. Autonomous driving means that a human driver’s intervention is not required to drive the automobile; rather, theautomobile is capable of driving itself. Achieving automobile autonomyrequires research in several areas, one of which is the area of automotive electrical/electronics (E/E) architectures. These architectures deal with the design of the computer hardware and software present inside various subsystems of the vehicle, with particular attention to their interaction and modularization. The aim of this thesis is to investigate how automotive E/E architectures should be designed so that 1) it ispossible to realize autonomous features and 2) a smooth transition canbe made from existing E/E architectures, which have no explicit support for autonomy, to future E/E architectures that are explicitly designed for autonomy.The thesis begins its investigation by considering the specific problem of creating autonomous behavior under cooperative driving condi-tions. Cooperative driving conditions are those where continuous wireless communication exists between a vehicle and its surroundings, which consist of the local road infrastructure as well as the other vehicles in the vicinity. In this work, we define an original reference architecture for cooperative driving. The reference architecture demonstrates how a subsystem with specific autonomy features can be plugged into an existing E/E architecture, in order to realize autonomous driving capabilities. Two salient features of the reference architecture are that it isminimally invasive and that it does not dictate specific implementation technologies. The reference architecture has been instantiated on two separate occasions and is the main contribution of this thesis. Another contribution of this thesis is a novel approach to the design of general, autonomous, embedded systems architectures. The approach introduces an artificial consciousness within the architecture, that understands the overall purpose of the system and also how the different existing subsystems should work together in order to meet that purpose.This approach can enable progressive autonomy in existing embedded systems architectures, over successive design iterations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. x, 66 p.
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2013:06
National Category
Computer Systems Embedded Systems Robotics
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-120595 (URN)978-91-7501-712-9 (ISBN)
2013-04-25, B242, Brinellvägen 83, KTH, Stockholm, 13:30 (English)

QC 20130412

Available from: 2013-04-12 Created: 2013-04-12 Last updated: 2013-04-12Bibliographically approved
2. Reference Architectures for Highly Automated Driving
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reference Architectures for Highly Automated Driving
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Highly automated driving systems promise increased road traffic safety, as well as positive impacts on sustainable transportation by means of increased traffic efficiency and environmental friendliness. The design and development of such systems require scientific advances in a number of areas. One area is the vehicle's electrical/electronic (E/E) architecture. The E/E architecture can be presented using a number of views, of which an important one is the functional view. The functional view describes the decomposition of the system into its main logical components, along with the hierarchical structure, the component inter-connections, and requirements. When this view captures the principal ideas and patterns that constitute the foundation of a variety of specific architectures, it may be termed as a reference architecture. Two reference architectures for highly automated driving form the principal contribution of this thesis. The first reference architecture is for cooperative driving. In a cooperative driving situation, vehicles and road infrastructure in the vicinity of a vehicle continuously exchange wireless information and this information is then used to control the motion of the vehicle. The second reference architecture is for autonomous driving, wherein the vehicle is capable of driver-less operation even without direct communication with external entities. The description of both reference architectures includes their main components and the rationale for how these components should be distributed across the architecture and its layers. These architectures have been validated via multiple real-world instantiations, and the guidelines for instantiation also form part of the architecture description. A comparison with similar architectures is also provided, in order to highlight the similarities and differences. The comparisons show that in the context of automated driving, the explicit recognition of components for semantic understanding, world modeling, and vehicle platform abstraction are unique to the proposed architecture. These components are not unusual in architectures within the Artificial Intelligence/robotics domains; the proposed architecture shows how they can be applied within the automotive domain. A secondary contribution of this thesis is a description of a lightweight, four step approach for model based systems engineering of highly automated driving systems, along with supporting model classes. The model classes cover the concept of operations, logical architecture, application software components, and the implementation platforms. The thesis also provides an overview of current implementation technologies for cognitive driving intelligence and vehicle platform control, and recommends a specific setup for development and accelerated testing of highly automated driving systems, that includes model- and hardware-in-the-loop techniques in conjunction with a publish/subscribe bus. Beyond the more "traditional" engineering concepts, the thesis also investigates the domain of machine consciousness and computational self-awareness. The exploration indicates that current engineering methods are likely to hit a complexity ceiling, breaking through which may require advances in how safety-critical systems can self-organize, construct, and evaluate internal models to reflect their perception of the world. Finally, the thesis also presents a functional architecture for the brake system of an autonomous truck. This architecture proposes a reconfiguration of the existing brake systems of the truck in a way that provides dynamic, diversified redundancy, and an increase in the system reliability and availability, while meeting safety requirements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. xviii, 50 p.
TRITA-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2105:09
Autonomous driving, E/E Architecture, Systems Engineering
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Machine Design
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179306 (URN)978-91-7595-757-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-01-22, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)

QC 20151216

Available from: 2015-12-16 Created: 2015-12-15 Last updated: 2016-01-25Bibliographically approved

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