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Architecting Autonomous Automotive Systems: With an emphasis on Cooperative Driving
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8629-0402
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The increasing usage of electronics and software in a modern automobile enables realization of many advanced features. One such feature is autonomous driving. Autonomous driving means that a human driver’s intervention is not required to drive the automobile; rather, theautomobile is capable of driving itself. Achieving automobile autonomyrequires research in several areas, one of which is the area of automotive electrical/electronics (E/E) architectures. These architectures deal with the design of the computer hardware and software present inside various subsystems of the vehicle, with particular attention to their interaction and modularization. The aim of this thesis is to investigate how automotive E/E architectures should be designed so that 1) it ispossible to realize autonomous features and 2) a smooth transition canbe made from existing E/E architectures, which have no explicit support for autonomy, to future E/E architectures that are explicitly designed for autonomy.The thesis begins its investigation by considering the specific problem of creating autonomous behavior under cooperative driving condi-tions. Cooperative driving conditions are those where continuous wireless communication exists between a vehicle and its surroundings, which consist of the local road infrastructure as well as the other vehicles in the vicinity. In this work, we define an original reference architecture for cooperative driving. The reference architecture demonstrates how a subsystem with specific autonomy features can be plugged into an existing E/E architecture, in order to realize autonomous driving capabilities. Two salient features of the reference architecture are that it isminimally invasive and that it does not dictate specific implementation technologies. The reference architecture has been instantiated on two separate occasions and is the main contribution of this thesis. Another contribution of this thesis is a novel approach to the design of general, autonomous, embedded systems architectures. The approach introduces an artificial consciousness within the architecture, that understands the overall purpose of the system and also how the different existing subsystems should work together in order to meet that purpose.This approach can enable progressive autonomy in existing embedded systems architectures, over successive design iterations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , x, 66 p.
Series
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2013:06
National Category
Computer Systems Embedded Systems Robotics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-120595ISBN: 978-91-7501-712-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-120595DiVA: diva2:615888
Presentation
2013-04-25, B242, Brinellvägen 83, KTH, Stockholm, 13:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130412

Available from: 2013-04-12 Created: 2013-04-12 Last updated: 2013-04-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A reference architecture for cooperative driving
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A reference architecture for cooperative driving
2013 (English)In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 59, no 10: Part C, 1095-1112 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cooperative driving systems enable vehicles to adapt their motion to the surrounding traffic situation by utilizing information communicated by other vehicles and infrastructure in the vicinity. How should these systems be designed and integrated into the modern automobile? What are the needed functions, key architectural elements and their relationships? We created a reference architecture that systematically answers these questions and validated it in real world usage scenarios. Key findings concern required services and enabling them via the architecture. We present the reference architecture and discuss how it can influence the design and implementation of such features in automotive systems.

Keyword
Automotive embedded application, Autonomous systems, Cooperative driving, Intelligent transportation systems, Reference architecture
National Category
Embedded Systems Computer Systems Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-120592 (URN)10.1016/j.sysarc.2013.05.014 (DOI)000330090400007 ()2-s2.0-84888310995 (Scopus ID)
Projects
DFEA2020
Note

Updated from "Submitted" to "Published". QC 20140120

Available from: 2013-04-12 Created: 2013-04-12 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. The development of a cooperative heavy-duty vehicle for the GCDC 2011: Team Scoop
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The development of a cooperative heavy-duty vehicle for the GCDC 2011: Team Scoop
Show others...
2012 (English)In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 13, no 3, 1033-1049 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The first edition of the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) was held in the Netherlands in May 2011. Nine international teams competed in urban and highway platooning scenarios with prototype vehicles using cooperative adaptive cruise control. Team Scoop, a collaboration between KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, and Scania CV AB, Sodertalje, Sweden, participated at the GCDC with a Scania R-series tractor unit. This paper describes the development and design of Team Scoop's prototype system for the GCDC. In particular, we present considerations with regard to the system architecture, state estimation and sensor fusion, and the design and implementation of control algorithms, as well as implementation issues with regard to the wireless communication. The purpose of the paper is to give a broad overview of the different components that are needed to develop a cooperative driving system: from architectural design, workflow, and functional requirement descriptions to the specific implementation of algorithms for state estimation and control. The approach is more pragmatic than scientific; it collects a number of existing technologies and gives an implementation-oriented view of a cooperative vehicle. The main conclusion is that it is possible, with a modest effort, to design and implement a system that can function well in cooperation with other vehicles in realistic traffic scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2012
Keyword
Communication networks, cooperative systems, intelligent vehicles, motion control, software architecture, state estimation
National Category
Control Engineering Embedded Systems Communication Systems Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-102846 (URN)10.1109/TITS.2012.2204876 (DOI)000312805000006 ()
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel PerspectivesICT - The Next Generation
Note

© 2012 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.

QC20120927

Available from: 2012-09-27 Created: 2012-09-26 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. Scoop Technical Report: Year 2011
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scoop Technical Report: Year 2011
2011 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report deals with the technical solution that was implemented for the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) 2011. The GCDC involved developing a system to drive a vehicle autonomously in specific situations. Some reflections on the design process are also included. The goal of the report is to make the user understand the technical solution and the motivations behind the design choices made.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. 34 p.
Keyword
Intelligent transport system, automotive embedded system, autonomous system
National Category
Embedded Systems Computer Systems Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-104750 (URN)KTH/MMK/R-12/12-SE (ISRN)
Note

QC 20121112

Available from: 2012-11-12 Created: 2012-11-11 Last updated: 2013-04-12Bibliographically approved
4. Towards Autonomous Architetures: An Automotive Perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Autonomous Architetures: An Automotive Perspective
2012 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The use of embedded computers in modern automobiles is enabling increasingly autonomous features. Electronic power train management and applications in active safety, cooperative driving and navigation show an underlying trend of the transfer of responsibilities from the human driver to a vehicle's (semi-)autonomous subsystems. The logical culmination ofthis trend would be a completely autonomous vehicle. How should existing vehicle architectures be evolved to sustain the development and growth of autonomous functions? We explore the principal problems with existing architectures, caused due to ad hoc addition of (semi-) autonomous features and argue that it is time to rethink automotive architectures from an autonomous systems perspective. We introduce a pattern that can help architects and designers to think in terms of autonomy and suggest where the application of autonomous systems thinking should begin, in the context of architecture development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. 16 p.
Series
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2012:10
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-104803 (URN)KTH/MMK/R-12/10-SE (ISRN)
Projects
DFEA2020
Note

QC 20121119

Available from: 2012-11-19 Created: 2012-11-13 Last updated: 2013-04-12Bibliographically approved

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