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Evaluation of the WRC 1992 diagram using computational thermodynamics
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
2013 (English)In: Welding in the World, ISSN 0043-2288, E-ISSN 1878-6669, Vol. 57, no 3, 305-314 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ferrite content of a stainless steel weld metal is a vital parameter for ensuring that the microstructure and thus also corrosion and mechanical properties are adequate. A rapid way of estimating ferrite content and thus microstructure is by using weld metal composition and a Welding Research Council (WRC)-1992 diagram. The ferrite-forming alloying elements are estimated to a chromium equivalent, the austenitic to a nickel equivalent and the ferrite content is estimated by help of isoferrite lines. This diagram was derived by empirical work on a large number of commercial and laboratory stainless weld metals covering a wide alloy span. The present paper uses computational thermodynamics, i.e. Thermo-Calc, to evaluate the influence of temperature and key stainless alloying elements. The alloying range for duplex stainless weld metal was studied and the WRC 1992 diagram was compared with results from calculations. The chromium and nickel equivalents were evaluated and coefficients for Mo, Nb, C, N and Cu assessed. The results showed that while the coefficients for Mo and N proved accurate, the values for Nb, C and Cu would require an adjustment. Alternative diagrams with adjusted chromium and nickel equivalents and iso-ferrite lines in both ferrite numbers and volume percent were suggested.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 57, no 3, 305-314 p.
Keyword [en]
Stainless steel, Simulating, Thermodynamics
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-121333DOI: 10.1007/s40194-013-0025-7ISI: 000317621800004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-121333DiVA: diva2:618456
Note

QC 20130603

Available from: 2013-04-28 Created: 2013-04-28 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Applications of Computational Thermodynamics and Kinetics on Transformations in Stainless Steels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applications of Computational Thermodynamics and Kinetics on Transformations in Stainless Steels
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Stainless steels are high-alloyed, usually with multiple components and often also dual matrix phases, as for duplex stainless steels. This make predictions and calculations of alloying effects on equilibria and transformations complicated. Computational thermodynamics has emerged as an indispensable tool for calculations within these complex systems with predictions of equilibria and precipitation of phases. This thesis offers examples illustrating how computational methods can be applied both to thermodynamics, kinetics and coarsening of stainless steels in order to predict microstructure and, to some extent, also properties. The performance of a current state-of-the-art commercial thermodynamic database was also explored and strengths and weaknesses highlighted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. 60 p.
Keyword
Stainless Steels, Duplex, Ferrite, Austenite, Computational Thermodynamics, Thermo-Calc, Dictra
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-121337 (URN)978-91-7501-714-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-05-16, B2, Brinellvägen 23, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130429

Available from: 2013-04-29 Created: 2013-04-28 Last updated: 2013-04-29Bibliographically approved

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