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Fuel cell based cogeneration: Comparison of electricity production cost for Swedish conditions
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1742-6967
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9203-9313
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2268-5042
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2013 (English)In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 38, no 10, 3858-3864 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A good portion of greenhouse gas emissions is caused by the energy used in the built environment. Emission reduction goals may be achieved by combining cogeneration with fuel cells (PC). This paper investigates electricity production costs for PC based cogeneration systems with recent data for Swedish conditions. The types of FCs that are investigated are proton exchange membrane PC and molten carbonate FC. Based solely on cost, PC based cogeneration systems cannot compete with conventional systems. However, our results show that Molten Carbonate PC based cogeneration systems will be profitable by 2020. To compete with conventional systems, the capital cost, lifetime and efficiency of FCs must be improved. Creation of a reasonably broad market is essential since it will greatly help to reduce capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs, the dominating parts of the overall costs according to the analysis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD , 2013. Vol. 38, no 10, 3858-3864 p.
Keyword [en]
Cogeneration, Fuel cells, MCFC, PEMFC, Sweden
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-121464DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.01.178ISI: 000316714200004Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84875212412OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-121464DiVA: diva2:619082
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20130502

QC 20151215

Available from: 2013-05-02 Created: 2013-04-29 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Biomass-fuelled PEM FuelCell systems for small andmedium-sized enterprises
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomass-fuelled PEM FuelCell systems for small andmedium-sized enterprises
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Biomass-fuelled proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) offer asolution for replacing fossil fuel for hydrogen production. Through using thebiomass-derived hydrogen as fuel, PEMFCs may become an efficient andsustainable energy system for small and medium-sized enterprises. The aim ofthis thesis is to evaluate the performance and potential applications of biomassfuelledPEMFC systems which are designed to convert biomass to electricity andheat. Biomass-fuelled PEMFC systems are simulated by Aspen plus based ondata collected from experiments and literature.The impact of the quality of the hydrogen-rich gas, anode stoichiometry, CH4content in the biogas and CH4 conversion rate on the performance of the PEMFCis investigated. Also, pinch technology is used to optimize the heat exchangernetwork to improve the power generation and thermal efficiency.For liquid and solid biomass, anaerobic digestion (AD) and gasification (GF),respectively, are relatively viable and developed conversion technologies. ForAD-PEMFC, a steam reformer is also needed to convert biogas to hydrogen-richgas. For 100 kWe generation, the GF-PEMFC system yields a good technicalperformance with 20 % electrical efficiency and 57 % thermal efficiency,whereas the AD-PEMFC system only has 9 % electrical efficiency and 13 %thermal efficiency. This low efficiency is due to the low efficiency of theanaerobic digester (AD) and the high internal heat consumption of the AD andthe steam reformer (SR). For the environmental aspects, the GF-PEMFC systemhas a high CO2 emissions offset factor and the AD-PEMFC system has anefficient land-use.The applications of the biomass-fuelled PEMFC systems are investigated on adairy farm and an olive oil plant. For the dairy farm, manure is used as feedstockto generate biogas through anaerobic digestion. A PEMFC qualified for 40 %electrical efficiency may generate 360 MWh electricity and 680 MWh heat peryear to make a dairy farm with 300 milked cows self-sufficient in a sustainableway. A PEMFC-CHP system designed for an olive oil plant generating annual 50000 m3 solid olive mill waste (SOMW) and 9 000 m3 olive mill waste water(OMW) is simulated based on experimental data from the Biogas2PEM-FCproject1. After the optimization of the heat exchanger network, the PEMFC-CHP 

system can generate 194 kW electricity which corresponds to 62 % of the totalelectricity demand of the olive oil plant.The economic performance of the PEMFC and biogas-fuelled PEMFC areassessed roughly including capital, operation & maintenance (O&M) costs of thebiogas plant and the PEMFC-CHP, the cost of heat and electricity, and the valueof the digestate as fertilizer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. xviii, 64 p.
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2015:65
Keyword
PEMFC, renewable hydrogen production, biomass, hydrogen-rich gas, biomass conversion, anaerobic digestion, steam reforming, CO removal, gasification, sustainable energy system
National Category
Energy Systems Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176633 (URN)978-91-7595-755-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-12-04, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20151109

Available from: 2015-11-09 Created: 2015-11-09 Last updated: 2015-11-09Bibliographically approved
2. Economic Aspects of Fuel Cell-Based Stationary Energy Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic Aspects of Fuel Cell-Based Stationary Energy Systems
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

It is evident that human activity has an important impact on climate. Constantly increasing energy demand is one of the biggest causes of climate change. The fifth assessment report of the Inter-governmental panel on climate change states that decarbonisation of electricity generation is a key component of climate change mitigation. Increased awareness of this fact and escalating concerns around energy security has brought public attention to the energy industry, especially sustainable power generation systems.

Future energy systems may need to include hydrogen as an energy carrier in order to achieve necessary levels of CO2 emission reductions, and overcome the challenges renewable energy systems present. Fuel cells could be a corner stone of future hydrogen inclusive energy solutions.

New solutions like fuel cells have to compete with existing technologies and overcome the shortcomings of emerging technology. Though these shortcomings are well-recognised, fuel cells also have many advantages which makes continued research and development in the field highly worthwhile and viable. Key to their adoption is the identification of a niche market to utilise their advantages while overcoming their shortcomings with continuous research and development.

This thesis aims to evaluate some of the stationary fuel cell applications and determine whether one could become the niche market as an entry point for fuel cells. This is achieved by economic evaluations of real and hypothetical applications.

Results of the studies here imply that to decrease the total life cycle impacts of fuel cells to more acceptable levels, resource use in the manufacturing phase and recycling in decommissioning should be shown more attention. Results also present a picture showing that none of the applications investigated are economically feasible, given the current state of technology and energy prices. However, fuel cell-based combined cooling, heating and power systems for data centres show the potential to become the niche market that fuel cells need to grow. A further conclusion is that a broad market, longer stack lifetime, the possibility of selling electricity back to the grid and governmental subsidies are essential components of an environment in which fuel cells can permeate through the niche market to the mainstream markets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. 79 p.
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2016:1
Keyword
Fuel cells, niche market, stationary applications, feasibility, multi-generation
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179137 (URN)978-91-7595-754-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-01-15, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20151210

Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2015-12-10Bibliographically approved

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Sevencan, SuatLindbergh, GöranLagergren, CarinaAlvfors, Per

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