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Modeling of constrained articular cartilage growth in an intact knee with focal knee resurfacing metal implant
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Biomechanics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Biomechanics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5819-4544
2014 (English)In: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology, ISSN 1617-7959, E-ISSN 1617-7940, Vol. 13, no 3, 599-613 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the present study was to develop a model to simulate the articular cartilage growth in an intact knee model with a metal implant replacing a degenerated portion of the femoral cartilage. The human knee joint was approximated with a simplified axisymmetric shape of the femoral condyle along with the cartilage, meniscus and bones. Two individually growing constituents (proteoglycans and collagen) bound to solid matrix were considered in the solid phase of the cartilage. The cartilage behavior was modeled with a nonlinear biphasic porohyperelastic material model, and meniscus with a transversely isotropic linear biphasic poroelastic material model. Two criteria (permeation and shear), both driven by mechanical loading, were considered to trigger the growth in the solid constituents. Mechanical loading with sixty heavy cycles was considered to represent daily walking activity. The growth algorithm was implemented for 90 days after implantation. The results from simulations show that both cartilage layers were more stimulated near the implant which lead to more growth of the cartilage near the defect. The method developed in the present work could be a powerful technique if more accurate material data and growth laws were available.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 13, no 3, 599-613 p.
Keyword [en]
Biphasic porohyperelastic, Finite element model, Cartilage growth, Cartilage defects, Metal implant, Knee resurfacing
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-121572DOI: 10.1007/s10237-013-0521-0ISI: 000335722900010Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84905583151OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-121572DiVA: diva2:619124
Note

QC 20140609

Available from: 2013-05-02 Created: 2013-05-02 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Mechanics and Growth of Articular Cartilage Around a Localized Metal Implant
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanics and Growth of Articular Cartilage Around a Localized Metal Implant
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Articular cartilage is a specialized connective soft tissue that resides on the ends of long-bones, and transfers the load smoothly between the bones in diarthrodial joints by providing almost frictionless, wear resistant sliding surfaces during joint articulation. Focal chondral or osteochondral defects in articular cartilage are common and show limited capacity for biological repair. Furthermore, changes in the bio-mechanical forces at the defect site may make the tissue more susceptible to continued degeneration. Alternatively, a contoured focal resurfacing metal implant can be used to treat such full-thickness cartilage defects. Physiological and biomechanical studies on animal models with metal implant have shown good clinical outcomes. However, the mechanical behavior of cartilage surrounding the implant has remained largely unanswered with respect to the joint function.

First, we developed a simple 3-dimensional finite element model by approximating one of the condyles of a sheep knee joint and parametrically studied the effects of shape, size and positioning of the implant on the mechanical behavior of the cartilage surrounding the implant. The mechanical sealing effect due to the wedge shape of the implant was studied. We also simulated the time dependent behavior of the cartilage surrounding the implant. In the second part, we developed a more sophisticated model accounting for biological growth aspects of the cartilage around the implant together with the in vivo mechanical response of the cartilage in an intact human knee joint. An axisymmetric representation of a human knee condyle including both cartilage layers, meniscus and tibia was considered. A cartilage growth finite element model incorporating dynamic loading from walking, which drives the growth stimulation in the cartilage, was developed. Two individually growing constituents in the solid matrix of cartilage together with the biphasic contacts in the joint were considered in the growth model. From our simulations it is evident that the cartilage near the implant was more stimstimulated, whence the defect edge of the cartilage was growing onto the implant.

The models developed in the present work are simulation tools and have a potential, in relevant aspects, to predict the physiological behavior of the cartilage surrounding the metal implant.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. x, 48 p.
Series
Trita-MEK, ISSN 0348-467X ; 2013:08
Keyword
finite element analysis, articular cartilage defects, growth, knee, focal knee resurfacing, metal implant, poroelastic, porohyperelastic, biphasic
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-121573 (URN)978-91-7501-720-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-05-22, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130502

Available from: 2013-05-02 Created: 2013-05-02 Last updated: 2013-05-08Bibliographically approved

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Eriksson, Anders

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