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Deployment Simulations of a Composite Boom for Small Satellites
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Structural Mechanics.
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The use of small satellites is rapidly growing, especially satellites with masses between 1 and 10 kg and few litres of volume. The main reasons are due to the low development time and cost. Electronics miniaturization and high density integration is enabling the small satellites class to perform more and better tasks and at a lower cost. When deployable structures are required for the missions, the actual paradigm is that there are very few that have been successfully developed and flown. It is usually not possible to scale down existing deployable structures from larger satellites. Power and attitude control is also very limited in small satellites thus, completely new deployable structures, low mass and with high packaging ratio (yet large and with adequate mechanical properties when deployed) must be developed. Furthermore, such new structures are usually made of very thin and light materials which complicates the on-ground tests prior the launch. Therefore, advances in modelling and simulation deployable structures such as booms are also of great interest for the scientific community.

This thesis and the papers included herein focus on the finite element modelling of a meter-class passively deployable boom – based on the SIMPLE boom by Thomas W. Murphey – and deployment simulations. Experimental tests were also carried on a boom prototype suspended from a gravity off-loading system. An analytical model produced certain parameters which are used for validation of the finite element model. The strain energy stored in the boom prior to deployment and spacecraft displacements during deployment agreed well. The deployment time, however, have discrepancies: the models predicted a deployment time six times faster than the experimental tests. For that reason the deployment simulations cannot be compared with the tests. The reason of the discrepancies are believed to be due to the actual material model and the contacts formulation used in the finite element model. The finite element simulations, however, shows a reasonable behaviour given the nature of the deployment thus, despite the necessary improvements, we believe that future improvements in the material and friction models will provide us more realistic results.

Abstract [sv]

Användningen av små satelliter ökar snabbt, särskilt satelliter med en vikt på mellan 1 och 10 kg och bara några liters volym. De främsta orsakerna till detta är den korta utvecklingstiden och den låga kostnaden. Elektronikminiatyrisering och hög integreringsdensitet möjliggör för små satelliter att utföra fler och bättre uppgifter till en lägre kostnad. När utfällbara strukturer krävs för uppdragen är nuvarande läge att det är få som utvecklats och flugits framgångsrikt. Det är inte heller alltid möjligt att skala ner utfällbara strukturer som utformats för användning i större satelliter. I små satelliter är den tillgängliga elektriska energin och volymen starkt begränsade faktorer och därmed måste helt nya passivt utfällbara strukturer med låg vikt och liten packningsvolym, men ändå rätt storlek och mekaniska egenskaper när de är utfällda, utvecklas. Dessa strukturer är vanligen tillverkade av mycket tunna och lätta material, som komplicerar tester innan uppskjutningen p.g.a. tyngdkraften. Därför är det av stort intresse att noggrant kunna modellera och simulera ett tyngdlöst utfällningsförlopp.

Denna licentiatuppsats och bilagda artiklar i fokuserar på finit elementmodellering och utfällningssimuleringar av en 1 meter lång passivt utfällbar bom baserad på SIMPLE-bommen som utformats av Thomas W. Murphey. Utfällningsexperiment har utförts på en prototyp av bommen upphängd i ett tyngdkraftskompenserande system. Analytiska modeller har använts för att validera simuleringarna och töjningsenergin som lagrats i bommen innan utfällning och rymdfarkostens förflyttning efter utfällning överensstämmer väl. Utfällningstiden avviker dock och båda modellerna predikterar en utfällningstid som är sex gånger snabbare än den tiden som observeras i experimenten. Anledningen till skillnaderna antas delvis bero på begränsningar i den använda materialmodellen och i algoritmer för hantering av kontakt i den finita elementmodellen. De finite elementsimuleringarna visar dock ett rimligt dynamisk beteende hos bommen baserat på vad som observerats i experimenten och även om modellen är i behov av förbättring så finns det stora förhoppningar att åstadkomma en mer realistisk modell genom införande av förbättrade kontakalgoritmer och nogrannare modellering av dämpning och friktion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , viii, 30 p.
Series
Trita-MEK, ISSN 0348-467X ; 2013:10
Keyword [en]
small satellites, deployable structures, high packaging ratio, composites, bi-stable, gravity off-loading system
Keyword [sv]
små satelliter, utfällbara strukturer, kompakt ihoppackning, kompositer, bistabil, tyngdkraftskompenserande system
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-121633ISBN: 978-91-7501-756-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-121633DiVA: diva2:619338
Presentation
2013-05-24, E3, Osquars backe 14, KTH, Stockholm, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130506

Available from: 2013-05-06 Created: 2013-05-03 Last updated: 2013-05-06Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Deployment modelling and experimental testing of a bi-stable composite boom for small satellites
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deployment modelling and experimental testing of a bi-stable composite boom for small satellites
2013 (English)Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The rapidly growing use of nano- and pico-satellites for space missions requires deployable systems to be highly storable yet large and with adequate mechanical properties when deployed. This paper focuses on the modelling and simulation of a meter-class passively deployable boom – based on the SIMPLE boom by Thomas W. Murphey – exploiting the bi-stable nature of composite shells. Experimental tests were also carried on a boom prototype suspended in a gravity off-loading system. The strain energy level, deployment time and spacecraft displacements of the models agree well with analytical analyses, confirming the theoretical accuracy of the finite element model. However, the simulations show that the boom deploys six times faster than the real prototype. The quick deployment and violent end-of-deployment shock provokes the boom deployment dynamics to be unrealistic but still shows a reasonable behaviour given the nature of the deployment. Future improvements in the material and friction models will, most likely, provide us with a more realistic finite element model.

National Category
Applied Mechanics Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-121766 (URN)
Conference
54thAIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and MaterialsConference in Boston (8–11 April 2013)
Note

QC 20130506

Available from: 2013-05-03 Created: 2013-05-03 Last updated: 2013-05-06Bibliographically approved
2. Explicit dynamics simulations of the deployment of a composite boom for small satellites
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Explicit dynamics simulations of the deployment of a composite boom for small satellites
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Applied Mechanics Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-121770 (URN)
Note

QS 2013

Available from: 2013-05-03 Created: 2013-05-03 Last updated: 2013-05-06Bibliographically approved

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