Strengthening and degradation mechanisms in austenitic stainless steels at elevated temperature
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
With rapid economic developments and rising living standards, the demand for electricity all over the world is greatly increased. Due to high fuel costs, the steam boilers with higher steam temperature and pressure are needed to decrease the cost of power generation throughout the world extensively. In recent years, human awareness of the gradual strengthening of environmental protection increases, therefore to reduce the CO2 emissions the power generation efficiency needs to be improved. The development of high temperature materials with improved creep rupture strength and oxidation resistance is critically needed. Materials for these demanding conditions are austenitic stainless steels such as 310, 310NbN and Sanicro 25.
Fundamental models have been developed for the precipitation of coarse particles during long time ageing of austenitic stainless steels and the influence of the particles on the mechanical properties. The models have been verified by ageing experiments. The austenitic stainless steel 310 was aged for up to 5000 h at 800 ºC. The precipitation models could satisfactorily describe the influence of ageing time on the radii and the volume fractions of particles. Models for the influence of the coarse precipitates on the tensile properties and the toughness were developed and reproduce the measured mechanical properties without the use of any fitting parameters. These developed models were utilised to investigate the influence of bands on ductility and toughness at room temperature. Up to 10 % σ-phase was observed to precipitate, which has a pronounced influence of the mechanical properties. Thermodynamic analysis demonstrated that the amount of precipitates due to ageing can significantly be reduced if the nitrogen or the carbon content is increased.
Microstructure investigations of austenitic stainless steel 310NbN and Sanicro 25 were carried out by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The austenitic stainless steel 310NbN was aged for up to 10000 h at 650 and 750 ºC. The austenitic stainless steel Sanicro 25 was also aged for up to 10000 h at 650 and 700 ºC. Phase fractions and mean radii evolution of precipitates were calculated and compared to the experimental results. Size distributions of the precipitates in these steels were determined. Models for the different contributions to the creep strength have been applied: i) a recovery creep model for the dislocation hardening; ii) a climb controlled model for the precipitation hardening; iii) solid solution hardening from Cottrell clouds of solutes around the dislocations, and iv) A modified Dobes model for the effective stress. The total contributions can describe the experimental creep strength satisfactorily without the use of adjustable parameters.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , ix, 56 p.
Engineering and Technology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122158ISBN: 978-91-7501-777-8OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-122158DiVA: diva2:621120
2013-06-04, Sal B1, Brinellvägen 23, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Sandström, Rolf, Senior forskare
QC 201305172013-05-172013-05-132013-05-17Bibliographically approved
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