Evaluation of the demand response in the Stockholm Royal Seaport Project
Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Along with the increasing demand for energy and more concerns about the environment, theexisting power supply systems including the power networks are facing challenges. Security ofsupply, sustainability and competitiveness are the requirements for Europe’s energy supplysystems in the future. Smart grid provides a future vision of Europe’s power network toovercome the challenges above and fulfill these requirements. As a cornerstone of smart grid,demand response aims at stimulating end-use consumers to change their electricityconsumption patterns through a series of technical and economic approaches. A grid leveloptimization could be achieved through the modification of consuming time, instantaneousdemand or total electricity consumption by consumers. To facilitate the large scaleimplementation of demand response, it is necessary to establish proper methods to estimateand verify the load impacts of it. Moreover, since the participation of end consumers isindispensable, it is valuable to investigate the consumers’ willingness to reduce and moveconsumptions due to different incentives.This thesis investigates how the demand response could be evaluated in the Stockholm RoyalSeaport (SRS) project in which a sustainable energy system is under planning. The methods forboth load impact evaluation and cost-benefit evaluation are presented. The impact evaluationconsists of ex post evaluation and ex ante estimation. The thesis presents three ex anteestimation methods: (a) international compilation, (b) estimation based on certain apartmenttypes and (c) load curve analysis. Experimental designs of ex post evaluation are compared andrecommendations are proposed for the SRS project to guarantee the internal validity ofevaluation.The thesis also performs the load curve analysis as an ex ante estimation to assess the possibleimpact of the demand response in the SRS project and test it against the hypothesis that 5% to15% of daily consumption could be shifted from peak hours to off-peak hours with response tothe signals. A markov-chain load model is applied to generate end-use load curves. Consumers’behavior change due to the price and CO2 signals are simulated by using a scheduling program.The trade-offs between the two signals are considered by introducing a weight λ to express therelative importance of electricity cost and CO2 emission for a household. Optimal schedules aresuggested by the scheduling program for each λ under the time preference set by consumers.Simulations show that both λ and time preference largely affect the load shift. The “5%-15%”hypothesis could be true. But the high level of load shift could only be achieved when theoff-peak hours in early morning are effectively utilized. This implies a significant change of thecustomary schedules of consumers. By observing the load shifts over different length of testingperiod, the thesis also shows that the testing period should be one year at least to get sufficientload data to distinguish the load patterns between active consumers and non-active consumers.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EES Examensarbete / Master Thesis, XR-EE-ES 2013:010
smart grid, demand response, Stockholm Royal Seaport, evaluation methods, load model, scheduling program, price and CO2 signal, load shift
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122287OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-122287DiVA: diva2:621841