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Design approaches for grouting of rock fractures; Theory and practice
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3556-3562
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Currently, cement base grout is used widely for sealing of the rock fractures in order to decrease the permeability of rock mass. Grouting procedure is one of the main tasks in cycle of rock excavation. In addition, huge amount of grout should be used during dam construction in order to seal the bedding and embankment walls. Therefore, considering the effect of grouting in duration and cost of the project, improving the design methods seems essential.

In successful grouting the goal is to achieve the required sealing of fractures while avoiding ground movement due to applied pressure. Empirical methods have been developed to decide the pumping pressure, grout mix properties and stop criteria in order to fulfill requirements of successful grouting but there are ambiguities in using them and performance of them have been questioned. In these methods, assumptions and criteria are based on rules of thumbs and experiences from previous projects. The main uncertainties connected to these methods are identifying amount of grout spread and state of the fracture.

Theoretical approach is an analytical solution which provides the chance for estimation of penetration length of the grout in real time. Furthermore, void filling fracture aperture and trend of the grout flow are estimated. As the development of this theory, elastic and ultimate jacking limits have been established based on the estimated penetration length. Therefore, it is possible to identify jacking of the fracture and estimate the state of the fracture in real time. 

In this research work, performance of this theoretical approach which is called “Real Time Grouting Control Method” has been validated through case studies. Properties of the used material, data for pressure and flow in addition to geological characteristics have been gathered from projects in sedimentary rock (Gotvand Dam in Iran and THX Dam in Laos) and hard rock (City Line Project in Sweden). This theory made it possible to observe overflow of grout and jacking of the fractures in sedimentary rock. In place of hard rock with mostly vertical fractures, this theoretical approach confirms usage of higher pressure which will shorten the grouting time.

In this research work, variation in properties of the grout mix during grouting has been neglected. moreover, orientation of the fracture and its deformation due to injection pressure are not considered. Despite these assumptions, the results were promising and performance this approach in estimation of grout spread and identifying jacking of the fracture has been verified.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013.
Series
Examensarbete Jord- och bergmekanik, ISSN 1652-599X ; 2021
Keyword [en]
Grouting, Rock mechanics, Jacking, penetration length
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Infrastruktur
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122376OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-122376DiVA: diva2:622103
Presentation
2013-05-27, Room D2, Lindstedtsvägen 5, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Rafi, J, Stille, H, Bagheri, M, 2012. Applying “Real Time Grouting Control Method” in Sedimentary Rock, in 4th International Conference on Grouting and Deep Mixing. 16-18 February, New Orleans-USA.Rafi J, Stille H, 2013. Controlling jacking of rock considering spread of grout and grouting pressure, Accepted in Journal of Tunneling and Underground Space Technology.Rafi J, Tsuji M, Stille H, 2013. Theoretical Approaches in Grouting Fractures of the Rock Mass: Theories and Applications. Accepted in the 47th US Rock Mechanics / Geomechanics Symposium. 23-26 June, San Francisco, CA, USA.Rafi J, Tsuji M, Stille H, 2013. Theoretical approaches in grouting design: estimation of penetration length and fracture deformation in real time in Bergmekanikdagen, 11 March, Stockholm-Sweden.
Note

QC 20130520

Available from: 2013-05-20 Created: 2013-05-20 Last updated: 2014-11-06Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Applying Real Time Grouting Control Method in Sedimentary Rock
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applying Real Time Grouting Control Method in Sedimentary Rock
2012 (English)In: Grouting and deep mixing: proceedings of the fourth International Conference on Grouting and Deep Mixing, February 15-18, 2012, New Orleans, Louisiana, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2012, 1450-1459 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We report on preliminary studies of low (14 at.%) and high (53at.%) concentration Mn doped MgO films deposited by co-sputtering from metallic Mn and Mg targets. The structural, surface morphologies and magnetic properties of the films of different thickness were studied. All the as grown films are found to be amorphous and film surfaces are found to be flawless and homogeneous. We observe at room temperature robust ferromagnetic loops with a saturation magnetization value that is a function of film thickness reaching a maximum of ≃38.5 emu/cm3 in the Mn0.53Mg0.47O film at a thickness of ≃92 nm. In thicker films room-temperature ferromagnetic ordering is suppressed and eventually at a thickness around 120nm the expected diamagnetism of the bulk appears. The origin of ferromagnetism may be attributed to cation defects at the Mg-site.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2012
Series
Geotechnical Special Publication, ISSN 0895-0563 ; 228
National Category
Civil Engineering Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-75018 (URN)10.1557/opl.2013.611 (DOI)2-s2.0-84888388845 (Scopus ID)978-078441235-0 (ISBN)
Conference
4th International Conference on Grouting and Deep Mixing, Marriott New Orleans, New Orleans, LA, February 16-18, 2012
Note

QC 20130520

Available from: 2012-02-04 Created: 2012-02-04 Last updated: 2017-01-17Bibliographically approved
2. Control of rock jacking considering spread of grout and grouting pressure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Control of rock jacking considering spread of grout and grouting pressure
2014 (English)In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 40, 1-15 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper describes a theoretical approach for monitoring fracture dilatancy (or “jacking”) during grouting. From this, a methodology to optimize the grout pumping pressure has been developed, based on the required penetration length (i.e. the distance that the grout spreads from the grout hole into the network of fractures within the rock mass). Empirical rules are put forward to prevent the damage that may result from uncontrolled deformation (Jacking) of the fractures, by limiting either pumping pressure or the injected grout volume, or by a combination of both. The state of the fractures and the spread of the grout when these limits are reached are discussed. The theoretical approach, which is referred to here as the Real Time Grouting Control Method, enables the estimation of grout penetration length or “spread” in real time. This gives an opportunity to monitor fracture dilation as it happens and, for the purpose of this paper, the allowable limits of elastic deformation and jacking have been estimated based on the grout spread. Two case histories are analyzed, for which the physical reaction of the fracture deformation with time and grout spread are determined from the recorded pressure and flow. By comparing the observed physical reaction with the theories for jacking presented here, the Real Time Grouting Control Method has been validated, and it is shown that this theoretical approach is superior to commonly used empirical methods, in that it allows the optimization of the pumping pressure to achieve a given penetration length in the shortest time and with an acceptable fracture dilatancy. This approach is a major step forward in customizing grouting works.

Keyword
Grouting pressure, Jacking, Penetration length, Grout take
National Category
Civil Engineering Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Infrastruktur
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122410 (URN)10.1016/j.tust.2013.09.005 (DOI)000330150700001 ()2-s2.0-84885795114 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140212

Available from: 2013-05-20 Created: 2013-05-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Theoretical Approaches in Grouting Fractures of the Rock Mass: Theories and Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Theoretical Approaches in Grouting Fractures of the Rock Mass: Theories and Applications
2013 (English)In: 47th US Rock Mechanics / Geomechanics Symposium, American Rock Mechanics Association (ARMA), 2013, 1731-1737 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Currently there is a great deal of specific attention on improving the grouting methods since optimizing the grouting process will have significant impact on performance and economy of projects as well as safeguarding the purity of nature. The main problem with existing grouting method is lack of knowledge about the spread of grout, i.e. there is no clue if the grout has been penetrated enough or if it has been over spread. Also the state of fractures during grouting is unknown. In the last decade, theoretical approach has been developed which enables estimation of the grout spread in real time. Furthermore, by replacing the estimated penetration length with injected volume, dilation of the rock fractures is monitored in real time. In this paper, this analytical solution has been examined and competency of its application has been discussed. Implementing this theory with data from City Line project confirms the usage of high applied pressure in this project which will lead to shortening of the grouting time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Rock Mechanics Association (ARMA), 2013
Keyword
Applied pressure, Grouting methods, ITS applications, Line project, Penetration length, Rock fractures, Rock mass, Theoretical approach
National Category
Civil Engineering Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122412 (URN)2-s2.0-84892883898 (Scopus ID)978-162993118-0 (ISBN)
Conference
47th US Rock Mechanics / Geomechanics Symposium 2013; San Francisco, CA; United States; 23 June 2013 through 26 June 2013
Note

QC 20140107

Available from: 2013-05-20 Created: 2013-05-20 Last updated: 2014-11-06Bibliographically approved
4. Theoretical approaches in grouting design: estimation of penetration length and fracture deformation in real time
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Theoretical approaches in grouting design: estimation of penetration length and fracture deformation in real time
2013 (English)In: Bergmekanikdagen, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Civil Engineering Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122413 (URN)
Conference
Bergmekanikdagen, 11 March, Stockholm-Sweden
Note

QC 20140107

Available from: 2013-05-20 Created: 2013-05-20 Last updated: 2014-11-06Bibliographically approved

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