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Theoretical Approaches in Grouting Fractures of the Rock Mass: Theories and Applications
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3556-3562
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
2013 (English)In: 47th US Rock Mechanics / Geomechanics Symposium, American Rock Mechanics Association (ARMA), 2013, 1731-1737 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Currently there is a great deal of specific attention on improving the grouting methods since optimizing the grouting process will have significant impact on performance and economy of projects as well as safeguarding the purity of nature. The main problem with existing grouting method is lack of knowledge about the spread of grout, i.e. there is no clue if the grout has been penetrated enough or if it has been over spread. Also the state of fractures during grouting is unknown. In the last decade, theoretical approach has been developed which enables estimation of the grout spread in real time. Furthermore, by replacing the estimated penetration length with injected volume, dilation of the rock fractures is monitored in real time. In this paper, this analytical solution has been examined and competency of its application has been discussed. Implementing this theory with data from City Line project confirms the usage of high applied pressure in this project which will lead to shortening of the grouting time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Rock Mechanics Association (ARMA), 2013. 1731-1737 p.
Keyword [en]
Applied pressure, Grouting methods, ITS applications, Line project, Penetration length, Rock fractures, Rock mass, Theoretical approach
National Category
Civil Engineering Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122412Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84892883898ISBN: 978-162993118-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-122412DiVA: diva2:622182
Conference
47th US Rock Mechanics / Geomechanics Symposium 2013; San Francisco, CA; United States; 23 June 2013 through 26 June 2013
Note

QC 20140107

Available from: 2013-05-20 Created: 2013-05-20 Last updated: 2014-11-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Design approaches for grouting of rock fractures; Theory and practice
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design approaches for grouting of rock fractures; Theory and practice
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Currently, cement base grout is used widely for sealing of the rock fractures in order to decrease the permeability of rock mass. Grouting procedure is one of the main tasks in cycle of rock excavation. In addition, huge amount of grout should be used during dam construction in order to seal the bedding and embankment walls. Therefore, considering the effect of grouting in duration and cost of the project, improving the design methods seems essential.

In successful grouting the goal is to achieve the required sealing of fractures while avoiding ground movement due to applied pressure. Empirical methods have been developed to decide the pumping pressure, grout mix properties and stop criteria in order to fulfill requirements of successful grouting but there are ambiguities in using them and performance of them have been questioned. In these methods, assumptions and criteria are based on rules of thumbs and experiences from previous projects. The main uncertainties connected to these methods are identifying amount of grout spread and state of the fracture.

Theoretical approach is an analytical solution which provides the chance for estimation of penetration length of the grout in real time. Furthermore, void filling fracture aperture and trend of the grout flow are estimated. As the development of this theory, elastic and ultimate jacking limits have been established based on the estimated penetration length. Therefore, it is possible to identify jacking of the fracture and estimate the state of the fracture in real time. 

In this research work, performance of this theoretical approach which is called “Real Time Grouting Control Method” has been validated through case studies. Properties of the used material, data for pressure and flow in addition to geological characteristics have been gathered from projects in sedimentary rock (Gotvand Dam in Iran and THX Dam in Laos) and hard rock (City Line Project in Sweden). This theory made it possible to observe overflow of grout and jacking of the fractures in sedimentary rock. In place of hard rock with mostly vertical fractures, this theoretical approach confirms usage of higher pressure which will shorten the grouting time.

In this research work, variation in properties of the grout mix during grouting has been neglected. moreover, orientation of the fracture and its deformation due to injection pressure are not considered. Despite these assumptions, the results were promising and performance this approach in estimation of grout spread and identifying jacking of the fracture has been verified.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013
Series
Examensarbete Jord- och bergmekanik, ISSN 1652-599X ; 2021
Keyword
Grouting, Rock mechanics, Jacking, penetration length
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Infrastruktur
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122376 (URN)
Presentation
2013-05-27, Room D2, Lindstedtsvägen 5, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Rafi, J, Stille, H, Bagheri, M, 2012. Applying “Real Time Grouting Control Method” in Sedimentary Rock, in 4th International Conference on Grouting and Deep Mixing. 16-18 February, New Orleans-USA.Rafi J, Stille H, 2013. Controlling jacking of rock considering spread of grout and grouting pressure, Accepted in Journal of Tunneling and Underground Space Technology.Rafi J, Tsuji M, Stille H, 2013. Theoretical Approaches in Grouting Fractures of the Rock Mass: Theories and Applications. Accepted in the 47th US Rock Mechanics / Geomechanics Symposium. 23-26 June, San Francisco, CA, USA.Rafi J, Tsuji M, Stille H, 2013. Theoretical approaches in grouting design: estimation of penetration length and fracture deformation in real time in Bergmekanikdagen, 11 March, Stockholm-Sweden.
Note

QC 20130520

Available from: 2013-05-20 Created: 2013-05-20 Last updated: 2014-11-06Bibliographically approved

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Yaghoobi Rafi, Jalaleddin

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