P-Type ZnO materials: Theory, growth, properties and devices
2013 (English)In: Progress in Materials Science, ISSN 0079-6425, E-ISSN 1873-2208, Vol. 58, no 6, 874-985 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
In the past 10 years, ZnO as a semiconductor has attracted considerable attention due to its unique properties, such as high electron mobility, wide and direct band gap and large exciton binding energy. ZnO has been considered a promising material for optoelectronic device applications, and the fabrications of high quality p-type ZnO and p-n junction are the key steps to realize these applications. However, the reliable p-type doping of the material remains a major challenge because of the self-compensation from native donor defects (VO and Zni) and/or hydrogen incorporation. Considerable efforts have been made to obtain p-type ZnO by doping different elements with various techniques. Remarkable progresses have been achieved, both theoretically and experimentally. In this paper, we discuss p-type ZnO materials: theory, growth, properties and devices, comprehensively. We first discuss the native defects in ZnO. Among the native defects in ZnO, VZn and O i act as acceptors. We then present the theory of p-type doping in ZnO, and summarize the growth techniques for p-type ZnO and the properties of p-type ZnO materials. Theoretically, the principles of selection of p-type dopant, codoping method and XZn-2VZn acceptor model are introduced. Experimentally, besides the intrinsic p-type ZnO grown at O-rich ambient, p-type ZnO (MgZnO) materials have been prepared by various techniques using Group-I, IV and V elements. We pay a special attention to the band gap of p-type ZnO by band-gap engineering and room temperature ferromagnetism observed in p-type ZnO. Finally, we summarize the devices based on p-type ZnO materials.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 58, no 6, 874-985 p.
Band gap engineering; Doping different elements; Exciton-binding energy; Growth techniques; High electron mobility; Hydrogen incorporation; Room temperature ferromagnetism; Self-compensation, Binding energy; Defects; Electron mobility; Energy gap; Growth (materials); Materials; Optoelectronic devices; Semiconductor doping; Semiconductor quantum wells; Zinc, Zinc oxide
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122618DOI: 10.1016/j.pmatsci.2013.03.002ISI: 000320141400002ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84876727540OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-122618DiVA: diva2:623036
QC 201305242013-05-242013-05-242013-07-12Bibliographically approved