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In-line rheological measurements of cement grouts: Effects of water/cement ratio and hydration
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1667-8919
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics. Skanska AB, Sweden.
SIK – The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology.
2015 (English)In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 45, 34-42 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The rheological properties of cement based grouts change with water/cement ratio and time, during the course of hydration. For this reason, it is desirable to be able to measure this change continuously, in-line, with a robust instrument during the entire grouting operation in the field.The rheological properties of commonly used cement grouts were determined using the Ultrasound Velocity Profiling combined with the Pressure Difference (UVP. +. PD) method. A non-model approach was used that directly provides the properties, and the results were compared with the properties obtained using the Bingham and Herschel-Bulkley rheological models. The results show that it is possible to determine the rheological properties, as well as variations with concentration and time, with this method.The UVP. +. PD method has been found to be an effective measuring device for velocity profile visualization, volumetric flow determination and the characteristics of the grout pump used.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 45, 34-42 p.
Keyword [en]
cement grout, in-line rheology, UVP+PD, grouting, ultrasound velocity profiling, cement rheology, hydration.
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Infrastruktur
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122641DOI: 10.1016/j.tust.2014.09.003ISI: 000347022600004Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84907701665OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-122641DiVA: diva2:623133
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Note

QC 20150202. Updated from submitted to published.

Available from: 2013-05-24 Created: 2013-05-24 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. In-line rheology of cement grouts - Feasibility study of an ultrasound based non-invasive method
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In-line rheology of cement grouts - Feasibility study of an ultrasound based non-invasive method
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Grouting is used in underground construction to reduce the water flow into tunnels and caverns and to limit the lowering of the surrounding groundwater table. Due to their wide availability and low cost relative to other materials, cement based materials are commonly used as grouts and, in this context, the rheology of the cement grout is an important factor. Rheological properties of cement grout such as viscosity and yield stress are commonly measured off-line using laboratory instruments, and some simple tools are available to make field measurements. However, these methods often lack accuracy and reliability. Although the rheological properties of the grout used play a fundamental role in design and execution, no method has yet been developed to measure these properties in-line in field work.

 

In this work, for the first time, an in-line rheometry method combining the Ultrasound Velocity Profiling (UVP) technique with Pressure Difference (PD) measurements, known as “UVP+PD”, was successfully tested for continuous in-line measurements of concentrated micro cement based grouts. The feasibility of using the UVP+PD method depends on the in-line determination of the rheological properties and time dependent behaviour of the cement grouts. A test set-up consisting of a combination of an experimental “flow loop” and a conventional field grouting rig – UNIGROUT E22H – from AtlasCopco, was used to investigate the feasibility of determining the rheological properties of cement grout using the UVP+PD method under field conditions. A laboratory based test set-up was used to further investigate the rheological properties in a more controlled environment.

 

The velocity profiles were measured directly in-line. The shape of the velocity profiles was visualized, and the change in the shape of the profiles with concentration and time was observed. The viscosity and yield stress of the grout were determined using rheological models, e.g. Bingham and Herschel-Bulkley. In addition, rheological properties were determined using the non-model approach (gradient method) and the tube viscometry concept and were compared with results obtained using the rheological models. In addition, the obtained rheological properties were subsequently compared with off-line measurements using a conventional rotational rheometer.  The UVP+PD method was found to be capable of determining the true rheological behavior of cement grout regardless of the rheological model, providing the opportunity to visualize the change in the shape of the velocity profiles. Furthermore, it was possible to make an accurate determination of the velocity by ultrasound velocity profiling at a very flow rate (i.e. 1liter/min). The ultrasound velocity profiling was also found to be a reliable tool for determining the characteristics of the grout pump. In conclusion, the UVP+PD method was demonstrated to be a promising new in-line tool for determining the rheological properties of commonly used cement based grouts and the changes with concentration and time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. viii, 27 p.
Series
Trita-JOB. LIC, ISSN 1650-951X ; 2021
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Infrastruktur
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122642 (URN)
Presentation
2013-05-27, D2, Lindstädvägen 5, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130530

Available from: 2013-05-30 Created: 2013-05-24 Last updated: 2013-05-30Bibliographically approved
2. Rheology of cement grout : Ultrasound based in-line measurement technique and grouting design parameters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rheology of cement grout : Ultrasound based in-line measurement technique and grouting design parameters
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Grouting is performed in order to decrease the permeability and increase the stiffness of the material, especially soil and rock. For tunnelling and underground constructions, permeation grouting is done where cement based materials are pumped inside drilled boreholes under a constant pressure, higher than the ground water pressure. The aim of permeation grouting is to reduce the water flow into tunnels and caverns and to limit the lowering of the surrounding groundwater table. Cement based materials are commonly used as grout due to their availability and lower costs. To obtain a proper water sealing and reduce the lowering of the ground water table, a desired spread of grout must be achieved and the rheology of the cement grout is the governing factor for estimating the required spread. Rheological properties of cement grout such as viscosity and yield stress are commonly measured off-line using laboratory instruments, and some simple tools are available to make field measurements. Although the rheological properties of the grout that is used play a fundamental role in design and execution, no method has yet been developed to measure these properties in-line in field work. In addition to the real time measurement, there is no standard method for determining the yield stress for grouting applications. Despite the common usage of Bingham model fitting to determine the yield stress, the range of shear rate is often not specified or is neglected.

 

In this work, an in-line rheometry method combining the Ultrasound Velocity Profiling (UVP) technique with Pressure Difference (PD) measurements, known as “UVP+PD”, was successfully tested for continuous in-line measurements of concentrated micro cement based grouts. A major obstacle of using the ultrasound based methodology was the transducers, which would be capable of emitting sufficient acoustic energy and can be used in field conditions. The transducer technology was developed in a parallel project and the Flow-Viz industrial rheometer was found to be capable of detail measurement of the velocity profiles of cement grout. The shape of the velocity profiles was visualized, and the change in the shape of the profiles with concentration and time was observed. The viscosity and yield stress of the grout were determined using rheological models, e.g. Bingham and Herschel-Bulkley. In addition, rheological properties were determined using the non-model approach (gradient method) and the tube viscometry concept and were compared with results obtained using the rheological models. The UVP+PD method was found to be capable of determining the rheological behavior of cement grout regardless of the rheological model.

The yield stress of cement grout was investigated using off-line rheometry techniques and UVP+PD in-line measurements. Tests were performed applying different shear histories and it was found that two ranges of yield stress indeed exist. Therefore, the design value of yield stress should be chosen with respect to the prevailing shear rate at the grout front for the required spread of grout. In addition, an appropriate shear rate range should be used when a Bingham fitting is done to determine the yield stress. In order to estimate the shear rate, plug thickness and velocity for one dimensional and two dimensional geometry, a non- dimensional nomogram was developed. The advantage of using the nomogram is that it does not depend on the applied pressure and the rheological properties of the grout and can therefore, be used as a simple design tool. Analytical approaches were used for the estimation and good agreements were found with numerical calculations and experimental results.

In conclusion, in this work, it was found that it is possible to continuously measure the velocity profiles and determine the change of the rheological properties of cement grout using the ultrasound based UVP+PD method under field conditions. The yield stress was also investigated and it was found that two range of yield stress exist depending on the prevailing shear rate of the grout, which should be used for designing the grouting time at different conditions. In order to decide the design value of yield stress for grouting applications, a non-dimensional nomogram was developed that can be used to estimate the plug thickness, shear rate and velocity of the grout. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. xvi, 73 p.
Series
TRITA-JOB PHD, ISSN 1650-9501 ; 1021
Keyword
grouting, grouting design, cement grout, Bingham number, shear rate, plug flow, thixotropy, yield stress, in-line rheology, UVP+PD, Flow-Viz, viscosity bifurcation, aging, off-line rheometry, pump characteristics
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176885 (URN)
Public defence
2015-11-18, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Funding for the project was provided by the Swedish Rock Engineering Research Foundation (BeFo), The Swedish Research Council (FORMAS) and The Development Fund of the Swedish Construction Industry (SBUF), who are gratefully acknowledged. QC 20151112

Available from: 2015-11-12 Created: 2015-11-11 Last updated: 2015-11-12Bibliographically approved

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