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Study of Multi-Radio Transmission Diversity in Heterogeneous Access Networks
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7372-5139
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

With the advent of multi-radio access (MRA), an integration of differentradio access technologies (RATs) into a heterogeneous radio access network(RAN) becomes feasible. Such integration allows a user to be at any instantof time served by one or multiple radio accesses (RAs) concurrently, where anRA constitutes an independent radio resource, such as a carrier or a channel,implemented by a single RAT. It also allows a user´s service demands to bemapped onto the aggregated network resources in a transparent and efficientway. An approach for the realization of such multi-radio integrated environmentsis through a unifying generic link layer (GLL) that provides joint radiolink processing and enables communication between nodes and devices acrossdifferent radio accesses.Based on the requirements on multi-access, an architecture that supportsMRA is suggested and the functions of GLL that aims at integrating andutilising multiple RATs are defined. We explore the potential for performanceimprovements through novel extensions of the transmission diversityparadigm which builds on GLL functions that enable multi-radio access selection.Multi-radio transmission diversity (MRTD) is defined as the dynamicselection of radio access for the transmission of a user´s data and it can bethought of as consisting of a packet scheduler operating across multiple radiointerfaces. Different MRTD schemes may be envisaged through combinationsof access re-selection rate, transmission parallelism and transmission redundancy.The re-selection rate refers to the rate at which radio access selectionis performed. It may range from multiple IP packets to one single MACframe. Switched MRTD corresponds to an access selection scheme where auser transmits via one RA at a time, while parallel MRTD corresponds to ascheme where simultaneous transmissions over multiple RAs are scheduled.Finally, redundancy refers to the transmission of copies of the same data overmultiple RAs to increase the possibility of correct reception.The benefits of MRTD are investigated by simulation studies on two multiradiocase scenarios, based on generic RATs and on specific RATs respectively.In the RAT generic scenario, switched MRTD has been evaluated for networktopologies of collocated and non-collocated RAs consisting of macroand pico-cells. In the case of collocated RAs, spectral efficiency is increasedby exploiting diversity in multi-path fading while in non-collocated RAs, thespectral efficiency increase is due to diversity exploitation in both shadowingand multi-path fading. Simulation results show that switched MRTD is mostadvantageous when the RAs provide comparable throughputs. Furthermore,when combined with multi-radio ARQ, MRTD significantly reduces packetloss and packet transmission delays. This is also shown in the specific radioaccesssimulation scenario where a delay sensitive voice service is studied. Inaddition, switched MRTD provides comparable gains to parallel MRTD interms of average packet transmission delay and packet loss, while using lessradio resources. In all cases, it is concluded that maximum performance isconditioned on the reporting delays of the channel quality indicator (CQI).Reporting delays of CQI that are half the channel coherence time render sucha complex MRTD mechanism less effective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , viii, 84 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2013:027
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122723ISBN: 978-91-7501-793-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-122723DiVA: diva2:623567
Presentation
2013-06-11, Q17, Osquldasväg 6, KTH, Stockholm, 15:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130531

Available from: 2013-05-31 Created: 2013-05-28 Last updated: 2013-09-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Future Wireless Communication based on Multi-Radio Access
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Future Wireless Communication based on Multi-Radio Access
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2004 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In future we will see a multitude of wireless networking technologies deployed, based on a variety of radio access technologies (RATs) and standards. The availability of multiple access alternatives offers the capability of increasing the overall transmission capacity, providing better service quality and reducing the deployment costs for wireless access. In order to exploit this potential multi-access gain it is required that different RATs are managed in a co-operative fashion. This paper presents current research activities on different levels of co-operation between heterogeneous RATs. It introduces multi-radio access for ambient networks, which is based on the two concepts of multi-radio resource management and a generic link layer. These concepts provide a modular functionality which allows different levels of collaboration between different RATs.

National Category
Computer and Information Science
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27801 (URN)
Conference
Wireless World Research Forum Meeting
Note

QC 20110105

Available from: 2011-01-02 Created: 2011-01-02 Last updated: 2013-05-31Bibliographically approved
2. Generic link layer: A solution for multi-radio transmission diversity in communication networks beyond 3G
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Generic link layer: A solution for multi-radio transmission diversity in communication networks beyond 3G
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2005 (English)In: VTC2005-FALL: 2005 IEEE 62ND VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE, 1-4, PROCEEDINGS, 2005, 1672-1676 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Communication systems beyond 3G (B3G) will consist of a mixture of radio access technologies. For such systems the challenge is to provide a multi-radio access architecture that facilitates the interconnection of heterogeneous radio access networks and supports efficiently the various services. Achieving this interconnection in a transparent way for users and services requires extensions at link layer level. The Generic Link Layer (GLL), as proposed in the context of the Ambient Networks (AN) project addresses this challenge. The principal role of GLL within the AN multi-radio access architecture is to integrate different Radio Access Technologies (RATs) at the link layer and to facilitate their efficient interworking. A feature that is enabled by the use of GLL is termed multi-radio transmission diversity (MRTD). It implies a well-defined split of a data-flow over the available RATs; the main benefits thereby are gain in user QoS, in spectral efficiency and in robustness. In this paper we give the system architecture and the GLL functions required for the realization of MRTD. Then, the specific scenario of cooperation between UMTS and IEEE 802.11 is discussed.

Series
IEEE VTS Vehicular Technology Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1090-3038
Keyword
communication networks beyond 3G, Ambient Networks, generic link layer, multi-radio access, multi-radio transmission diversity, UMTS/HSDPA, IEEE 802.11.
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122999 (URN)000235046902058 ()0-7803-9152-7 (ISBN)
Conference
62nd IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, SEP 25-28, 2005, Dallas, TX
Note

QC 20130531

Available from: 2013-05-31 Created: 2013-05-31 Last updated: 2013-05-31Bibliographically approved
3. Multi-Radio Access in Ambient Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-Radio Access in Ambient Networks
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2005 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Ambient Networks is a new networking concept that targets forthcoming dynamic communication environments; characterized by presence of a multitude of different wireless devices, radio access technologies and network operators that can form instant inter-network agreements with each other. In order to facilitate such dynamically composed networks a Multi-radio Access (MRA) architecture has been devised consisting of Multi-Radio Resource Management (MRRM) and Generic Link Layer (GLL) functionality. One of the key objectives of the MRA architecture is the efficient utilization of the multi-radio resources by means of effective radio access selection mechanisms. In this paper the functions of MRRM and GLL and their role in multi-radio access selection are explained. In addition, the results from a series of evaluation studies are presented emphasizing the scenarios where MRA approach shows significant gains in the overall system performance. This work has been performed as part of the Ambient Networks project, an integrated project within the EU IST 6th Framework Programme.

National Category
Computer and Information Science
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-28564 (URN)
Conference
IST Workshop
Note

QC 20110117

Available from: 2011-01-16 Created: 2011-01-16 Last updated: 2013-05-31Bibliographically approved
4. Switched multi-radio transmission diversity in future access networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Switched multi-radio transmission diversity in future access networks
2005 (English)In: VTC2005-FALL: 2005 IEEE 62ND VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE, 1-4, PROCEEDINGS, 2005, 235-239 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we study packet scheduling algorithms which exploit multi-radio transmission diversity in a multi-radio access network. We view the packet scheduling process as a combination of user scheduling and radio access allocation. A number of such schemes are proposed and their performance is evaluated via simulations in a multi-cell environment. It is shown that the use of such schemes across a total of six uncoupled radio accesses can result in average gains of up to 60% in spectral efficiency, as compared to scenarios where the radio accesses operate independently.

Series
IEEE VTS Vehicular Technology Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1090-3038
Keyword
communication networks beyond 3G, Ambient Networks, generic link layer, multi-radio access, multi-radio transmission diversity
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123047 (URN)000235046900049 ()0-7803-9152-7 (ISBN)
Conference
62nd IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, SEP 25-28, 2005, Dallas, TX
Note

QC 20130531

Available from: 2013-05-31 Created: 2013-05-31 Last updated: 2016-04-05Bibliographically approved
5. Switched Multi-Radio Transmission Diversity for Non-Collocated Radio Accesses
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Switched Multi-Radio Transmission Diversity for Non-Collocated Radio Accesses
2006 (English)In: 2006 IEEE 63RD VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-6, 2006, 167-171 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We evaluate the spectral efficiency gains observed through multi-radio transmission diversity (MRTD), whereby packets of data are jointly scheduled for downlink transmission over multiple independent radio accesses. We specifically address downlink switched MRTD employed across macro- and pico-cellular radio accesses with non-collocated base stations in a hierarchical cell structure. It is shown that while significant gains can be achieved via MRTD among collocated macro-cell (or pico-cell) base stations, tight cooperation across non-collocated macro- and pico-cell base stations is only beneficial for a small subset of possible geometries. The impact of CQI reporting delays is also investigated.

Series
IEEE VTS Vehicular Technology Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1090-3038
Keyword
multi-radio transmission diversity, joint scheduling, radio access allocation, networks beyond 3G, Ambient Networks, generic link layer, multi-radio access
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123048 (URN)000259580100034 ()978-0-7803-9391-2 (ISBN)
Conference
63rd IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, MAY 07-10, 2006, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA
Note

QC 20130531

Available from: 2013-05-31 Created: 2013-05-31 Last updated: 2016-04-05Bibliographically approved
6. On the performance of multi-radio ARQ and packet scheduling in Ambient Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the performance of multi-radio ARQ and packet scheduling in Ambient Networks
2007 (English)In: 2007 IEEE 66TH VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-5, 2007, 1456-1460 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In alignment to an "always best experience" scenario, we assess gains on user traffic in the context of a multi-radio access environment where heterogeneous radio technologies are integrated at link layer and users are jointly scheduled across multiple radio accesses (RAs). Such integration allows for an implementation of multi-radio transmission diversity (MRTD) which switches transmission of a user's data over the available RAs. The RA selection is based on measurements of radio link quality as reported by the radio interface. The application of an ARQ scheme utilising multiple RAs (MR-ARQ) in conjunction with MRTD provides added gains on user delay and neutralizes parts of degradations in spectral efficiency caused by reporting delays. Such multi-radio ARQ mechanism exploits the diversity across independent RAs, and results in gains in throughput over those achieved by RA-specific ARQ. MRTD when combined with MR-ARQ shows gains of up to 35% in spectral efficiency compared to the case where the radio accesses operate independently.

Series
IEEE VTS Vehicular Technology Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1090-3038
Keyword
Ambient Networks, multi-radio access, multi-radio ARQ multi-radio transmission diversity
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123049 (URN)10.1109/VETECF.2007.310 (DOI)000257697000294 ()978-1-4244-0263-2 (ISBN)
Conference
66th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, SEP 30-OCT 03, 2007, Baltimore, MD
Note

QC 20130531

Available from: 2013-05-31 Created: 2013-05-31 Last updated: 2016-04-05Bibliographically approved
7. Performance Evaluation of Multi-Radio Transmission Diversity: QoS Support for Delay Sensitive Services
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance Evaluation of Multi-Radio Transmission Diversity: QoS Support for Delay Sensitive Services
2009 (English)In: 2009 IEEE VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE, 2009, 2248-2252 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Integration and seamless networking of different wireless technologies is one of the driving scenarios in the contemporary research. In recent years, mobile phones have seen an influx of attractive on-demand multimedia services with strict QoS requirements. This work investigates the QoS for delay sensitive services under the design framework of a heterogeneous network. Multi Radio Transmission Diversity (MRTD), which exploits the benefits of dynamic usage of different access technologies, is tested using simulations for Voice-over-IP on multi-radio wireless devices. The network technologies in this study include HSDPA on UNITS and IEEE 802.11. By applying various MRTD schemes, gains in performance have been observed in terms of average packet delay, packet loss and goodput as compared to a legacy system which operates under only one network access for a given session. The MRTD schemes have been analyzed for various simulation scenarios characterized by varying traffic load and radio propagation conditions.

Series
IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, ISSN 1550-2252
Keyword
QoS, communication networks beyond 3G, multi-radio transmission diversity, multi-radio access networks, VoIP
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-30370 (URN)10.1109/VETECS.2009.5073791 (DOI)000273169201066 ()2-s2.0-70349659638 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-2516-7 (ISBN)
Conference
69th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Barcelona, SPAIN, APR 26-29, 2009
Note

QC 20110302

Available from: 2011-03-02 Created: 2011-02-24 Last updated: 2013-05-31Bibliographically approved

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