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Logistics of Earthmoving Operations: Simulation and Optimization
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Earthworks are a fundamental part of heavy construction engineering and involve the moving and processing of the soil surface of earth. Normally, earthmoving operations are carried out during the early stages of heavy construction projects. To a large extent, the success of the fundamental earthmoving determines the sequence of the remaining parts of a project. Furthermore, the operations require expensive heavy equipment as well as manpower. Thus, improving the efficiency of earthmoving operations is a primary target from the point of view of the project management.

This thesis develops simulation and optimization methods for logistics of earthmoving operations. Modeling earthmoving operations correctly is essential to ensure the credibility of simulation, and the well-known CYCLONE modeling methodology is employed to represent the earthmoving logistics. Discrete event simulation techniques are used to capture the interaction between resources and the randomness of the earthmoving activities. A prototype has been developed (Paper I) to demonstrate that the capability of the simulation system of evaluating alternative operating strategies and resource utilizations for earthmoving operations at a detailed level, as well as conducting productivity estimation and Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) calculations. The simulation system is then integrated with optimization to solve the optimal fleet selection problem for earthmoving operations (Paper II and III). Two optimization objectives are formulated and solved using the proposed simulation-based optimization framework and a genetic optimization algorithm: TCO minimization and maximization of productivity. The case studies show that the proposed mechanism can effectively allocate an optimal equipment combination for earthmoving operations and hence serve as an efficient tool for construction management. The main aim of the integrated simulation-based optimization platform is to act as a sales tool to help customers optimize their fleet and eventually their sites.

In addition to the simulation-based optimization framework for earthmoving logistics, the thesis examines the possibility of reducing fuel consumption for articulated haulers which are the most fuel consuming machines in earthmoving (Paper IV). Fuel consumption has become one of the main focuses for automobile manufacturers and several studies have been carried out over the last years to evaluate the possibility of using topographical information and positioning systems to aid look-ahead control systems for road vehicles. Based on the assumption of available road slope information and positioning system, an optimal control problem is formulated to determine the optimal gear shift sequence and time of shifting. Model Predictive Control algorithms together with Dynamic Programming techniques are employed to solve the optimal gear shifting problem. Computer simulations show that both fuel consumption and travel time can be reduced simultaneously. In addition, the optimal gear shift sequence resembles the behavior of an experienced driver.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , ix, 35 p.
Series
Trita-TEC-LIC, ISSN 1653-445X ; 13:002
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122893ISBN: 978-91-87353-05-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-122893DiVA: diva2:623911
Presentation
2013-06-14, V7, Teknikringen 76, KTH, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130531

Available from: 2013-05-31 Created: 2013-05-29 Last updated: 2013-05-31Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A Microscopic Simulation Model for Earthmoving Operations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Microscopic Simulation Model for Earthmoving Operations
2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainable Design and Construction, 2012, 218-223 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Earthmoving operations are a major part of many construction projects. Because of the complexity and fast-changing environment of such operations, the planning and estimating are crucial on both planning and operational levels. This paper presents the framework ofa microscopic discrete-event simulation system for modeling earthmoving operations and conducting productivity estimations on an operational level.A prototype has been developed to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed framework, and this simulation system is presented via a case study based on an actual earthmoving project. The case study shows that the proposed simulation model is capable of evaluating alternative operating strategies and resource utilization at a very detailed level.

National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-115982 (URN)
Conference
the International Conference on Sustainable Design and Construction
Note

TSC import 2106 2013-01-15. QC 20130531

Available from: 2013-01-15 Created: 2013-01-15 Last updated: 2017-03-22Bibliographically approved
2. Simulation-Based Optimization of Earthmoving Operations Using Genetic Algorithm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation-Based Optimization of Earthmoving Operations Using Genetic Algorithm
2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference of Hong Kong Society for Transportation Studies, 2012, 57-64 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-115980 (URN)2-s2.0-84896854386 (Scopus ID)
Conference
the 17th HKSTS International Conference
Note

TSC import 2104 2013-01-15. QC 20130531

Available from: 2013-01-15 Created: 2013-01-15 Last updated: 2017-03-22Bibliographically approved
3. Optimal Fleet Selection for Earthmoving Operations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal Fleet Selection for Earthmoving Operations
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Earthmoving operations often involve a large number of specially designed equipment with significant purchasing/leasing prices, high operating and maintenance costs. Hence, choosing the right fleet is a major concern from the construction planners’ point of view. This paper presents a methodology that combines discrete-event simulation and optimization to solve the optimal fleet selection problem for earthmoving operations. Two optimization objectives are formulated and solved using the proposed framework and a genetic algorithm: minimization of Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) and maximization of productivity. Further, a two-stage rating scheme is introduced to arrange the fleet configurations so that the optimization algorithm converges to a fleet with better second-stage performance while the first-stage performance remains at the same level. The case study shows that the proposed mechanism can effectively allocate an optimal equipment combination for earthmoving operations and hence serve as an efficient tool for construction management.

Keyword
earthmoving operations, equipment selection, simulation optimization, discrete - event simulation, genetic algorithm .
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-115983 (URN)
Conference
ISEC 7.7th International Structural Engineering and Construction Conference,Honolulu, Hawaii
Note

TSC import 2107 2013-01-15. QC 20130531

Available from: 2013-01-15 Created: 2013-01-15 Last updated: 2017-03-23Bibliographically approved
4. Gear Shift Optimization for Off-road Construction Vehicles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gear Shift Optimization for Off-road Construction Vehicles
2012 (English)In: PROCEEDINGS OF EWGT2012 - 15TH MEETING OF THE EURO WORKING GROUP ON TRANSPORTATION, Elsevier, 2012, 989-998 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper explores the possibility of using recorded road slope data in order to reduce fuel consumption for off-road construction vehicles such as articulated haulers. An optimal control algorithm based on model predictive control and dynamic programming is formulated to find an optimal gear shift sequence. Computer simulation shows that both fuel consumption and travel time can be reduced simultaneously. In addition, the optimal gear shift sequence resembles the behavior of an experienced driver.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Series
Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 1877-0428 ; 54
Keyword
Off-road construction vehicle, Model predictive control, Discrete dynamic programming
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-118029 (URN)10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.09.814 (DOI)000313206300096 ()
Conference
15th Meeting of the Euro-Working-Group-on-Transportation (EWGT), SEP, 2012, Paris, France
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note

QC 20130207

Available from: 2013-02-08 Created: 2013-02-08 Last updated: 2013-06-24Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
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  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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  • de-DE
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  • Other locale
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Output format
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