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An Insight into the Effect of Deformation on Carbide Dissolution in the Band Structure of Bearing Steel
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Casting of Metals.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9315-7178
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Casting of Metals.
2013 (English)In: Diffusion In Solids And Liquids VIII, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2013, 171-176 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Dendritic segregation in deformed samples remains in the form of band structure, which is a high-strained region. The present work investigates the effect of the uphill diffusion process, occurring during deformation, on the dissolution of carbide particles in the band structure. A series of hot compression tests are performed on the cast structure of bearing steel by using a hydraulic testing machine, MTS 810. Cylindrical specimens are deformed in a temperature range of 800 degrees C to 900 degrees C and at strain rates of 5s(-1) and 0.5s(-1). In order to eliminate the recovery process, samples are immediately quenched after the compression. The microsegregation of Cr, Mo, Mn and Si are investigated in the band structure, which shows a tendency of uphill diffusion during deformation process. The results show that the volume fraction of carbides varies with the increased straining. The results also show that deformation causes the fragmentation, dispersion of pearlite in the dendrites and the dissolution of spheroidized carbides in the band structure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2013. 171-176 p.
, Defect and Diffusion Forum, ISSN 1012-0386 ; 334-335
Keyword [en]
cast structure, carbide, diffusion, plastic deformation
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123134DOI: 10.4028/ 000317868600030ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84879812165OAI: diva2:625362
8th International Conference on Diffusion in Solids Liquids (DSL 2012), JUN 25-29, 2012, Istanbul, Turkey

QC 20130604

Available from: 2013-06-04 Created: 2013-06-03 Last updated: 2013-11-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Microstructural Evolution In As-cast Alloys during Plastic Deformation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructural Evolution In As-cast Alloys during Plastic Deformation
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The effect of deformation on microstructural changes in metals and alloys is the subject of considerable practical interest. The ultimate goal is to control, improve and optimize the microstructure and texture of the finished products produced by metal forming operations. The development in the subject field is remarkable but a more in-depth study could lead us to the better understanding of the phenomena.


In the present work microstructural evolution during the plastic deformation of as-cast pure metals and alloys is studied. An experimental method was developed to study the material behavior under the hot compression testing. This method was applied on the as-cast structure of copper, bearing steel, Incoloy 825 and β brass at different temperatures and strain rates. The temperature of the samples was measured during and after the deformation process. The microstructure of the samples was examined by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microstructural evolution during deformation process was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The samples were subsequently subjected to electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) to investigate the effect of the deformation on the microsegregation of Mo, Cr, Si, and Mn.


It was observed that the temperature of the samples deformed at strain rates of 5 and 10 s-1 increases abruptly after the deformation stops. However, compression test at the lower strain rates of 1 and 0.5 s-1 revealed that a constant temperature was maintained in the early stage of deformation, followed by an increase until the maximum temperature was obtained. This temperature behavior can be explained by the microstructural evolution during the deformation process. Micrograph analysis revealed the formation of deformation bands (DBs) in highly strained regions. The DBs are highly effective sites for recrystallization. The interdendritic regions are suitable sites for the formation of DBs due to the high internal energy in these regions. EMPA indicated a tendency towards uphill diffusion of Mo in the DBs with increasing strain. The effect of strain on the dissolution of carbides in the band structure of bearing steel was investigated by measuring the volume fraction of carbides inside the band structure at different strain levels. The results indicate that carbide dissolution is influenced by strain. 


The microstructural evolution inside the DBs was studied as a function of several properties: temperature, internal energy, and microsegregation. Compression of β brass revealed that twinning is the most prominent feature in the microstructure. EBSD analysis and energy calculations demonstrated that the twinning is not due to a martensitic process but rather the order/disorder transition during the deformation process. The effect of heat treatment at Tc (650°C) prior to deformation on the microstructure of β brass was also investigated, which revealed a relationship between twin formation and the anti-phase domain boundaries

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. 44 p.
plastic deformation, compression test, recrystallization, deformation band, As-cast, microsegregation, carbide dissolution, disordered structure, order/disorder transformation, twining, steel, β brass, copper
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
SRA - E-Science (SeRC)
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133362 (URN)978-91-7501-926-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-11-22, B2, KTH,Royal Institute of technology Brinellvägen23, Stockholm, 14:43 (English)

QC 20131104

Available from: 2013-11-04 Created: 2013-10-31 Last updated: 2013-11-04Bibliographically approved

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