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Small-Scale Testing of Frequency-Dependent Compaction of Sand Using a Vertically Vibrating Plate
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7361-0729
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9615-4861
2013 (English)In: ASTM geotechnical testing journal, ISSN 0149-6115, E-ISSN 1945-7545, Vol. 36, no 3, 394-403 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vibratory rollers generally operate at a fixed vibration frequency. It is hypothesized that the compaction of soil could be made more efficient if the frequency could be adapted to specific project conditions. In order to study the applicability to surface compaction, the frequency dependence of compacting dry sand with a vertically vibrating plate was investigated experimentally in 85 small-scale tests. Tests were performed in a test box simulating the free-field condition and with concrete underlying the sand bed. The results show that there is a distinct frequency dependence, implying a significantly improved compaction effect close to the compactor soil resonant frequency. It is suggested that particle velocity is the governing amplitude parameter for vibratory soil compaction, rather than displacement or acceleration. As the soil is compacted, it is also displaced, resulting in surface heave. A larger vibration amplitude implies greater displacement relative to the compacted volume. It was also observed that the compaction and strain-dependent reduction of soil stiffness are closely related.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 36, no 3, 394-403 p.
Keyword [en]
compaction, resonant frequency, strain softening, vibration, particle velocity
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123420DOI: 10.1520/GTJ20120183ISI: 000318261800010Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84878101469OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-123420DiVA: diva2:626690
Note

QC 20130610

Available from: 2013-06-10 Created: 2013-06-10 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Influence of Frequency on Compaction of Sand in Small-Scale Tests
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Frequency on Compaction of Sand in Small-Scale Tests
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Vibratory rollers are commonly used for compaction of embankments and landfills. In a majority of large construction projects, this activity constitutes a significant part of the project cost and causes considerable emissions. Thus, by improving the compaction efficiency, the construction industry would reduce costs and environmental impact. In recent years, rollers have been significantly improved in regard to engine efficiency, control systems, safety and driver comfort. However, very little progress has been made in compaction effectiveness. While the compaction procedure (e.g. layer thickness and number of passes) has been optimized over the years, the process in which the machine compacts the underlying soil is essentially identical to the situation in the 1970s.

This research project investigates the influence of one crucial parameter, namely vibration frequency of the drum, which normally is a fixed roller parameter. Frequency is essential in all dynamic systems but its influence on the compaction efficiency has not been studied since the early days of soil compaction. Since laboratory and field equipment, measurement systems and analysis techniques at the time were not as developed as they are today, no explicit conclusion was drawn. Frequencyvariable oscillators, digital sensors and computer‐based analysis now provide possibilities to accurately study this concept in detail.

In order to examine the influence of vibration frequency on the compaction of granular soil, small‐ scale tests were conducted under varying conditions. A vertically oscillating plate was placed on a sand bed contained in a test box. The experiments were carried out in laboratory conditions to maximize controllability. The first test setup utilized an electro‐dynamic oscillator where dynamic quantities, such as frequency and particle velocity amplitude, could be varied in real‐time. The second test setup included two counter‐rotating eccentric mass oscillators, where tests were conducted at discrete frequencies. This type of oscillator has a force amplitude that is governed by frequency.

The main objectives of the tests were to determine the optimal compaction frequency and whether resonance can be utilized to improve compaction efficiency. Results showed that resonance had a major influence in the electro‐dynamic oscillator tests, where the applied force amplitude is low, and the optimal compaction frequency is the resonant frequency under these circumstances. In the rotating mass oscillator tests, where a high force was applied to the plate, resonant amplification was present but not as pronounced. Since force increase with frequency, the optimal frequency to obtain the highest degree of compaction is very large. In a practical regard, however, frequency should be kept as low as possible to minimize machine wear and emissions while still achieving a sufficient compaction of the soil. Considering the practical issues, it is proposed that surface compactors should operate slightly above the resonant frequency. However, the applicability to vibratory rollers must be confirmed in full‐scale tests.

The thesis also presents an iterative method to calculate the frequency response of a vibrating plate, incorporating strain‐dependent soil properties. Calculated dynamic quantities are compared to measured values, confirming that the method accurately predicts the response.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. xiv, 30 p.
Series
TRITA-JOB. LIC, ISSN 1650-951X ; 2023
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-140617 (URN)
Presentation
2014-02-07, Sal B2, Brinellvägen 23, entreplan, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20140129

Available from: 2014-01-29 Created: 2014-01-29 Last updated: 2014-01-29Bibliographically approved
2. Frequency Optimization of Vibratory Rollers and Plates for Compaction of Granular Soil
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Frequency Optimization of Vibratory Rollers and Plates for Compaction of Granular Soil
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Vibratory rollers are commonly used for compaction of embankments and landfills. This task is time consuming and constitutes a significant part of most large construction and infrastructure projects. By improving the compaction efficiency, the construction industry would reduce costs and environmental impact.

This research project studies the influence of the vibration frequency of the drum, which is normally a fixed roller property, and whether resonance can be utilized to improve the compaction efficiency. The influence of frequency on roller compaction has not before been studied but the concept of resonance compaction has previously been applied successfully in deep compaction of fills and natural deposits.

In order to examine the influence of vibration frequency on the compaction of granular soil, small-scale compaction tests of sand were conducted under varying conditions with a vertically oscillating plate. Subsequently, full-scale tests were conducted using a vibratory soil compaction roller and a test bed of crushed gravel. The results showed that resonance can be utilized in soil compaction by vibratory rollers and plates and that the optimum compaction frequency from an energy perspective is at, or slightly above, the coupled compactor-soil resonant frequency. Since rollers operate far above resonance, the compaction frequency can be significantly reduced, resulting in a considerable reduction in fuel consumption, environmental impact and machine wear.

The thesis also presents an iterative equivalent-linear method to calculate the frequency response of a vibrating foundation, such as a compacting plate or the drum of a roller. The method seems promising for predicting the resonant frequency of the roller-soil system and can be used to determine the optimum compaction frequency without site- and roller-specific measurements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. 40 p.
Series
TRITA-JOB PHD, ISSN 1650-9501 ; 1022
Keyword
compaction, vibratory roller, frequency, resonance, vibration, sand, gravel, soil dynamics
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-187352 (URN)978-91-7729-042-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-08-26, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20160613

Available from: 2016-06-13 Created: 2016-05-20 Last updated: 2016-06-13Bibliographically approved

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Wersäll, CarlLarsson, Stefan

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