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Energy and Indoor Environment in New Buildings with Low-Temperature Heating System
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8614-5806
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis was to evaluate new buildings with low-temperature heating systems in terms of energy consumption and thermal comfort, and to pay some attention to energy savings and indoor air quality. To reach this aim, on-site measurements as well as building energy simulations using IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (ICE) 4 were performed. Results show that the investigated buildings with low-temperature heating system could meet the energy requirements of Swedish regulations in BBR (Boverkets byggregler), as well as provide a good level of thermal comfort. Implementing variable air volume ventilation instead of constant flow, i.e. decreasing the ventilation air from 0.35 to 0.10 l·s-1·m-2 during the whole unoccupancy (10 hours), gave up to 23 % energy savings for heating the ventilation air. However, the indoor air quality was not acceptable because VOC (volatile organic compound) concentration was slightly above the acceptable range for one hour after occupants arrive home. So, in order to create acceptable indoor air quality a return back to the normal ventilation requirements was suggested to take place two hours before the home was occupied. This gave 20 % savings for ventilation heating. The results of this study are in line with the European Union 20-20-20 goal to increase the efficiency of buildings by 20 % to the year 2020.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , 22 p.
National Category
Engineering and Technology Building Technologies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123566ISBN: 978-91-7501-783-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-123566DiVA: diva2:627711
Presentation
2013-06-14, Sal B 26, Brinellvägen 23, KTH, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130612

Available from: 2013-06-12 Created: 2013-06-12 Last updated: 2013-06-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Energy performance of low temperature heating systems in five new-built swedish dwellings: A case study using simulations and on-site measurements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy performance of low temperature heating systems in five new-built swedish dwellings: A case study using simulations and on-site measurements
2013 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 64, 85-93 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Europe, high energy consumption in built environments has raised the need for developing low energy heating systems both in new building and in retrofitting of existing buildings. This paper aims to contribute by presenting annual results of calculated and measured energy consumption in five new-built semi-detached dwellings in Stockholm, Sweden. All buildings were equipped with similar low temperature heating systems combining under-floor heating and ventilation radiators. Exhaust ventilation heat pumps supported the low temperature heating system. Buildings were modeled using the energy simulation tool IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (ICE) 4, and energy consumption of the heat pumps was measured. Results showed that calculated and measured results were generally in agreement for all five dwellings, and that the buildings not only met energy requirements of the Swedish building regulations but also provided good thermal comfort.

Keyword
Energy performance, High energy consumption, IDA ICE 4, Low temperature heating, Low temperatures, Measured energy consumption, Site measurements, Ventilation radiators, Building codes, Energy efficiency, Energy utilization, Heat pump systems, Housing, Temperature, Heating equipment, building, energy use, heating, low temperature, ventilation, Stockholm [Sweden], Sweden
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123567 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2013.02.009 (DOI)000319548100009 ()2-s2.0-84876331057 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20160623

Available from: 2013-06-12 Created: 2013-06-12 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Demand-controlled ventilation in new residential buildings: consequences on indoor air quality and energy savings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demand-controlled ventilation in new residential buildings: consequences on indoor air quality and energy savings
2015 (English)In: Indoor + Built Environment, ISSN 1420-326X, E-ISSN 1423-0070, Vol. 24, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The consequences on indoor air quality (IAQ) and potential of energy savings when using a variable airvolume (VAV) ventilation system were studied in a newly built Swedish building. Computer simulationswith IDA Indoor Climate and Energy 4 (ICE) and analytical models were used to study the IAQ andenergy savings when switching the ventilation flow from 0.375 ls1m2 to 0.100 ls1m2 duringunoccupancy. To investigate whether decreasing the ventilation rate to 0.1 ls1m2 during unoccupancy,based on Swedish building regulations, BBR, is acceptable and how long the reduction can lastfor an acceptable IAQ, four strategies with different VAV durations were proposed. This study revealedthat decreasing the flow rate to 0.1 ls1m2 for more than 4 h in an unoccupied newly built buildingcreates unacceptable IAQ in terms of volatile organic compounds concentration. Hence, if the durationof unoccupancy in the building is more than 4 h, it is recommended to increase the ventilation rate from0.100 ls1m2 to 0.375 ls1m2 before the home is occupied. The study showed that when the investigatedbuilding was vacant for 10 h during weekdays, increasing the ventilation rate 2 h before occupantsarrive home (low ventilation rate for 8 h) creates acceptable IAQ conditions. In this system, theheating requirements for ventilation air and electricity consumption for the ventilation fan weredecreased by 20% and 30%, respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2015
Keyword
Controlled ventilation system, Energy performance, IDA ICE 4, Indoor air quality, Variable air volume
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123568 (URN)10.1177/1420326X13508565 (DOI)000351700600003 ()2-s2.0-84925293881 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20150429

Available from: 2013-06-12 Created: 2013-06-12 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Energy Performance Evaluation of New Residential Buildings with a Low-Temperature Heating System: Results from Site Measurements and Building Energy Simulations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Performance Evaluation of New Residential Buildings with a Low-Temperature Heating System: Results from Site Measurements and Building Energy Simulations
2012 (English)In: Proceedings of The Second International Conference on Building Energy and Environment, 2012Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the national energy requirements of a modern, newly built residential development including four semi-detached houses in Stockholm, Sweden. The apartments were equipped with heat pumps utilising exhaust heat, resulting in a hydronic heating system adapted to low supply temperature. Ventilation radiators as combined ventilation and heating systems were installed in the two upper floors. Efficient preheating of incoming ventilation air in the ventilation radiator was an expected advantage. Under-floor heating with traditional air supply above windows was used on the ground floor. Energy consumption was calculated by IDA ICE 4, a building energy simulation (BES) program. In addition site measurements were made for comparison and validation of simulation results. Total energy consumption was monitored in the indoor temperature controlled buildings during the heating season. Our results so far indicate that total energy requirements in the buildings can be met in a satisfactory manner.

National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123569 (URN)
Conference
The Second International Conference on Building Energy and Environment, COBEE 12, Colorado, USA , August 2012
Note

QC 20130612

Available from: 2013-06-12 Created: 2013-06-12 Last updated: 2015-07-21Bibliographically approved
4. Demand Controlled Ventilation in a Combined Ventilation and Radiator System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demand Controlled Ventilation in a Combined Ventilation and Radiator System
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of International Conference CLIMA 13, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

With growing concerns for efficient and sustainable energy treatment in buildings there is a need for balanced and intelligent ventilation solutions. This paper presents a strategy for demand controlled ventilation with ventilation radiators, a combined heating and ventilation system. The ventilation rate was decreased from normal requirements (per floor area) of 0.375 l·s-1·m-2 to 0.100 l·s-1·m-2 when the residence building was un-occupied. The energy saving potential due to decreased ventilation and fan power was analyzed by IDA Indoor Climate and Energy 4 (ICE) simulation program. The result showed that 16 % of the original energy consumption for space and ventilation heating could be saved by utilizing ventilation on demand.

Keyword
Controlled ventilation system, Energy performance, IDA ICE 4, Variable air volume
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123570 (URN)
Conference
The 11 th REHVA World Congress and 8 th International Conference on IAQVEC,Prague, Czech Republic , June 2013
Note

QC 20130612

Available from: 2013-06-12 Created: 2013-06-12 Last updated: 2015-07-20Bibliographically approved
5. An investigation of energy efficient and sustainable heating systems for buildings: Combining photovoltaics with heat pump
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An investigation of energy efficient and sustainable heating systems for buildings: Combining photovoltaics with heat pump
2013 (English)In: Sustainability in Energy and Buildings: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference in Sustainability in Energy and Buildings (SEB´12), Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, 189-197 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Renewable energy sources contribute considerable amounts of energy when natural phenomena are converted into useful forms of energy. Solar energy, i.e. renewable energy, is converted to electricity by photovoltaic systems (PV). This study was aimed at investigating the possibility of combining PV with Heat Pump (HP) (PV-HP system). HP uses direct electricity to produce heat. In order to increase the sustainability and efficiency of the system, the required electricity for the HP was supposed to be produced by solar energy via PV. For this purpose a newly-built semi-detached building equipped with exhaust air heat pump and low temperature-heating system was chosen in Stockholm, Sweden. The heat pump provides heat for Domestic Hot Water (DHW) consumption and space heating. Since selling the overproduction of PV to the grid is not yet an option in Sweden, the PV should be designed to avoid overproduction. During the summer, the HP uses electricity only to supply DHW. Hence, the PV should be designed to balance the production and consumption during the summer months. In this study two simulation programs were used: IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (ICE) as a building energy simulation tool to calculate the energy consumption of the building, and the simulation program WINSUN to estimate the output of the PV. Simulation showed that a 7.3 m2 PV area with 15 % efficiency produces nearly the whole electricity demand of the HP for DHW during summer time. As a result, the contribution of free solar energy in producing heat through 7.3 m2 fixed PV with 23o tilt is 17 % of the annual heat pump consumption. This energy supports 51 % of the total DHW demand.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013
Series
Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies, ISSN 2190-3018 ; 22
Keyword
Domestic hot water, PV-HP system, Solar power, Sustainable development
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123571 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-36645-1_18 (DOI)2-s2.0-84879457927 (Scopus ID)978-364236644-4 (ISBN)
Conference
Sustainability in Energy and Buildings, SEB'12 Stockholm, Sweden 3 - 5 September 2012
Note

QC 20130612

Available from: 2013-06-12 Created: 2013-06-12 Last updated: 2015-07-21Bibliographically approved

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