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Mechanisms of Blister Formation on Concrete Bridge Decks with Waterprooving Asphalt Pavement Systems
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Bridge decks are commonly subjected to harsh environmental conditions that often lead to serious corrosion problems triggered by blisters under the hot mix asphalt bridge deck surfacing and secretly evolving during weather exposure until damage is often detected too late. Blisters may form under both the waterproofing dense mastic asphalt layer or under the waterproofing membrane which is often applied as additional water protection under the mastic asphalt (MA). One of the main technical issues is the formation of blisters under the membrane and asphalt-covered concrete structures caused by a complex mechanism governed by bottom-up pressure and loss of adhesion.

A linear viscoelastic finite-element model was developed to simulate time-dependent blister growth in a dense mastic asphalt layer under uniformly applied pressure with and without temperature and pressure fluctuation. A finite element model was developed using ABAQUS with linear viscoelastic properties and validated with a closed form solution from first-order shear-deformation theory for thick plates. In addition, the blister test was conducted on different samples of MA in the laboratory and digital image correlation measurement technique was used to capture the three-dimensional vertical deflection of the MA over time. It was found that the blister may grow continuously under repeated loading conditions over subsequent days.

With respect to blistering under waterproofing membranes, mechanical elastic modeling and experimental investigations were performed for three different types of membranes under in-plane stress state. The orthotropic mechanical behavior of a polymer modified bitumen membrane (PBM) was determined from biaxial test data. Finally, blister tests by applying controlled pressure between orthotropic PBMs and concrete plates were performed for studying the elliptical adhesive blister propagation using digital 3D image correlation. The energy calculated from elliptical blister propagation was found comparable to the adhesive fracture energy from standard peeling tests for similar types of PBMs. This indicates that the peeling test assists to evaluate and rank the adhesive properties of different types of membranes with respect to blister formation at room temperature without conducting time consuming and complicated pressurized blister propagation tests using digital 3D image correlation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , x, 97 p.
Keyword [en]
blister growth, PBM waterproofing membrane, orthotropic material, biaxial test, peeling test, elliptical blister growth
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-124078OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-124078DiVA: diva2:632638
Presentation
2013-06-13, B25, Brinellvägen 23, KTH, Stockholm, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130625

Available from: 2013-06-25 Created: 2013-06-25 Last updated: 2013-06-25Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Mechanisms of asphalt blistering on concrete bridges
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanisms of asphalt blistering on concrete bridges
2012 (English)In: Journal of ASTM International, ISSN 1546-962X, E-ISSN 1546-962X, Vol. 9, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Blistering is a major problem in asphalt-covered concrete structures, such as multi-storage parking buildings, built-up roofs, tunnels, pedestrian areas, or concrete bridge decks. In this particular research, a linear viscoelastic finite-element model is developed to simulate time-dependent blister growth in an asphalt layer under uniformly applied pressure with and without temperature and pressure fluctuation. Indirect tensile tests on mastic asphalt (MA) are performed at three different temperatures to characterize and determine the material properties for the model. A three-dimensional thick-plate axisymmetric finiteelement model is developed using ABAQUS with linear viscoelastic properties and validated with closedform solution from first-order shear-deformation theory for thick plates. Elastic-viscoelastic analogy is used to find an analytic solution for the time-dependent deflection of the blister. In addition, the blister test is conducted on different samples of MA in the laboratory and digital image correlation measurement technique is used to capture the three-dimensional vertical deflection of the MA with time. Finally, the results from image correlation are compared with the finite-element simulation and thick-plate theory analytic solution. The finite-element model simulation shows that the daily temperature variations may have a significant influence on blister growth in asphalt pavements. It is found that the blister can grow continuously under repeated loading conditions over subsequent days. The study concludes that temperature fluctuation in the blister has more influence on blister growth than fluctuation of the pressure inside the blister.

Keyword
ABAQUSTM, Blister growth, Closed-form solution, Creep, Finite-element method, Indirect tensile test, Master curve, Prony series, Relaxation, Sigmoidal function, Closed form solutions, Finite element methods (FEM), Sigmoidal functions, Asphalt, Asphalt pavements, Concrete bridges, Concrete construction, Image analysis, Loading, Temperature distribution, Three dimensional, Finite element method
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-99591 (URN)10.1520/JAI104135 (DOI)2-s2.0-84860147699 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20120801Available from: 2012-08-01 Created: 2012-08-01 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Adhesive Blister Propagation under an Orthotropic Bituminous Waterproofing Membrane
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adhesive Blister Propagation under an Orthotropic Bituminous Waterproofing Membrane
2013 (English)In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 48, 1171-1178 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In most countries, waterproofing systems used on concrete bridge decks or roofs of buildings are generally based on orthotropic bituminous membranes; amongst these, styrene-butadiene-styrene copolymer (SBS) and atactic polypropylene (APP) polymer modified bituminous membranes are being used in most applications. One of the main technical concerns is the formation of blisters under the membrane caused by a complex mechanism governed by bottom-up pressure and loss of adhesion. This paper intends to contribute in understanding this mechanism by mechanical elastic modeling and experimental investigation. In order to study the material properties of SBS membranes under the in-plane complex stress state, the orthotropic mechanical behavior of a polymer modified bitumen membrane (PBM) was determined from biaxial test data. Hence, the measured stress-strain data were analyzed using the orthotropic equation to find the material properties in the longitudinal and transversal direction. Finally, blister tests were performed on concrete plates for studying adhesive blister propagation by applying controlled pressure between the PBM and the concrete plates. It was found that the ratio of the longitudinal to transversal adhesive blister propagation is comparable to the ratio of the modulus of elasticity in the longitudinal to transversal direction. Due to the orthotropic material property of the PBM, elliptical adhesive blister propagation was observed and a new model proposed for determining the energy for elliptical adhesive blister propagation.

Keyword
Biaxial test, Digital image correlation, Elliptical blister growth, Orthotropic material, PBM water proofing membrane
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123785 (URN)10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.07.047 (DOI)000327561200137 ()2-s2.0-84883314015 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20131105. Updated from accepted to published.

Available from: 2013-06-18 Created: 2013-06-18 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Comparison between Blister Propagation and Peeling Test for an Orthotropic Bituminous Waterproofing Membrane
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison between Blister Propagation and Peeling Test for an Orthotropic Bituminous Waterproofing Membrane
(English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Bridge decks are commonly subjected to harsh environmental conditions that often lead to serious corrosion problems, which are triggered by blisters under the hot mix asphalt bridge deck pavement with waterproofing membranes. These blisters are secretly evolving during weather exposure until often being detected too late. Formation of blisters under the waterproofing membrane is caused by a complex mechanism governed by bottom-up pressure and loss of adhesion. This paper intends to adopt the analytical blister propagation energy approach for waterproofing membranes and compare it with adhesive fracture energy from standard peeling test methods, already described in the literature. Three different types of polymer modified bitumen membranes (PBMs) were used for this purpose. The investigation includes a comparison between uniaxial and biaxial testing conditions for determining the modulus of elasticity of the membranes. Moreover, the influence of the displacement rate and temperature on the adhesive fracture energy in peeling tests is investigated. It was found that the biaxial modulus of PBM in the longitudinal and transversal direction is comparable with the uniaxial tension testing results in the main directions. In addition, it was observed that the ratio of longitudinal and transversal modulus of elasticity was similar. The energy calculated from tests with elliptical blister propagation showed a comparable value to the standard peeling fracture energy for similar types of PBMs. This indicates that the peeling test assists in ranking the adhesive properties of different types of membranes. It also allows ranking between the membranes with respect to resistance to blister formation without time consuming and complicated pressurized blister propagation tests and digital image correlation techniques.

Keyword
PBM waterproofing membrane, orthotropic material, biaxial test, peeling test, elliptical blister growth, digital image correlation
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-124071 (URN)
Note

QS 2013

Available from: 2013-06-25 Created: 2013-06-25 Last updated: 2013-06-25Bibliographically approved
4. Mechanisms of Short-term Blistering Affecting Deterioration of Concrete Structures with Asphalt Pavements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanisms of Short-term Blistering Affecting Deterioration of Concrete Structures with Asphalt Pavements
2011 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-124072 (URN)
Conference
International Symposium of Durability of Building and Construction, 2011, Anaheim, Ca.
Note

NQC 2013

Available from: 2013-06-25 Created: 2013-06-25 Last updated: 2013-06-25Bibliographically approved

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