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Electromechanical Piezoresistive Sensing in Suspended Graphene Membranes
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4637-8001
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0525-8647
DIEGM, University of Udine, Via delle Scienze 206, 33100 Udine, Italy.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1234-6060
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2013 (English)In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 13, no 7, 3237-3242 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Monolayer graphene exhibits exceptional electronic and mechanical properties, making it a very promising material for nanoelectromechanical devices. Here, we conclusively demonstrate the piezoresistive effect in graphene in a nanoelectromechanical membrane configuration that provides direct electrical readout of pressure to strain transduction. This makes it highly relevant for an important class of nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) transducers. This demonstration is consistent with our simulations and previously reported gauge factors and simulation values. The membrane in our experiment acts as a strain gauge independent of crystallographic orientation and allows for aggressive size scalability. When compared with conventional pressure sensors, the sensors have orders of magnitude higher sensitivity per unit area.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 13, no 7, 3237-3242 p.
Keyword [en]
Graphene, pressure sensor, piezoresistive effect, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), MEMS
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-124556DOI: 10.1021/nl401352kISI: 000321884300038Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84880160546OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-124556DiVA: diva2:636621
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 228229 277879 307311
Note

QC 20130711

Available from: 2013-07-10 Created: 2013-07-10 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Heterogeneous material integration for MEMS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heterogeneous material integration for MEMS
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis describes heterogeneous integration methods for the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Most MEMS devices reuse the fabrication techniques that are found in the microelectronics integrated circuit industry. This limits the selection of materials and processes that are feasible for the realization of MEMS devices. Heterogeneous integration methods, on the other hand, consist of the separate pre-fabrication of sub-components followed by an assembly step. The pre-fabrication of subcomponents opens up for a wider selection of fabrication technologies and thus potentially better performing and more optimized devices. The first part of the thesis is focused upon an adhesive wafer-level layer transfer method to fabricate resistive microbolometer-based long-wavelength infrared focal plane arrays. This is realized by a CMOS-compatible transfer of monocrystalline silicon with epitaxially grown silicon-germanium quantum wells. Heterogeneous transfer methods are also used for the realization of filtering devices, integration of distributed small dies onto larger wafer formats and to fabricate a graphene-based pressure sensor. The filtering devices consist of very fragile nano-porous membranes that with the presented dry adhesive methods can be transferred without clogging or breaking. Pick-and-place methods for the massive transfer of small dies between different wafer formats are limited by time and die size-considerations. Our presented solution solves these problems by expanding a die array on a flexible tape, followed by adhesive wafer bonding to a target wafer. Furthermore, a gauge pressure sensor is realized by transferring a graphene monolayer grown on a copper foil to a micromachined target wafer with a silicon oxide interface layer. This device is used to extract the gauge factor of graphene. Adhesive bonding is an enabling technology for the presented heterogeneous integration techniques. A blister test method together with an experimental setup to characterize the bond energies between adhesives and bonded substrates is also presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. xii, 87 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2013:039
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-129185 (URN)
Public defence
2013-10-25, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20131003

Available from: 2013-10-03 Created: 2013-09-22 Last updated: 2013-10-04Bibliographically approved
2. Graphene-based Devices for More than Moore Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Graphene-based Devices for More than Moore Applications
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Moore's law has defined the semiconductor industry for the past 50 years. Devices continue to become smaller and increasingly integrated into the world around us. Beginning with personal computers, devices have become integrated into watches, phones, cars, clothing and tablets among other things. These devices have expanded in their functionality as well as their ability to communicate with each other through the internet. Further, devices have increasingly been required to have diverse of functionality. This combination of smaller devices coupled with diversification of device functionality has become known as more than Moore. In this thesis, more than Moore applications of graphene are explored in-depth.

Graphene was discovered experimentally in 2004 and since then has fueled tremendous research into its various potential applications. Graphene is a desirable candidate for many applications because of its impressive electronic and mechanical properties. It is stronger than steel, the thinnest known material, and has high electrical conductivity and mobility. In this thesis, the potentials of graphene are examined for pressure sensors, humidity sensors and transistors.

Through the course of this work, high sensitivity graphene pressure sensors are developed. These sensors are orders of magnitude more sensitive than competing technologies such as silicon nanowires and carbon nanotubes. Further, these devices are small and can be scaled aggressively.

Research into these pressure sensors is then expanded to an exploration of graphene's gas sensing properties -- culminating in a comprehensive investigation of graphene-based humidity sensors. These sensors have rapid response and recovery times over a wide humidity range. Further, these devices can be integrated into CMOS processes back end of the line.

In addition to CMOS Integration of these devices, a wafer scale fabrication process flow is established. Both humidity sensors and graphene-based transistors are successfully fabricated on wafer scale in a CMOS compatible process. This is an important step toward both industrialization of graphene as well as heterogeneous integration of graphene devices with diverse functionality. Furthermore, fabrication of graphene transistors on wafer scale provides a framework for the development of statistical analysis software tailored to graphene devices.

In summary, graphene-based pressure sensors, humidity sensors, and transistors are developed for potential more than Moore applications. Further, a wafer scale fabrication process flow is established which can incorporate graphene devices into CMOS compatible process flows back end of the line.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. xxvi, 79 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT, 2016:17
Keyword
Graphene, Humidity Sensor, Pressure Sensor, GFET, CMOS, BEOL, More than Moore, Integration, Statistics
National Category
Engineering and Technology Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-188134 (URN)978-91-7729-024-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-08-26, Sal C, Isafjordsgatan 22, Electrum 229, 164-40, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20160610

Available from: 2016-06-10 Created: 2016-06-06 Last updated: 2016-06-10Bibliographically approved

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