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Full-scale autothermal reforming for transport applications: The effect of diesel fuel quality
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
2013 (English)In: Catalysis Today, ISSN 0920-5861, E-ISSN 1873-4308, Vol. 210, 19-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study evaluates the feasibility of H-2 production through a fuel flexible reformer, at realistic operating conditions for electricity supply by FC-APUs in the transport sector. The fuel flexibility is evaluated by comparison of autothermal reforming performance with biodiesel (RME), Fischer-Tropsch, low-sulfur diesel (MK1) and European standard diesel (DIN 590). ATR experiments with two monolithic catalysts, Rh1.0Pt1.0Ce10La10/Al2O3 (CAT 1) and Rh1.0Pt1.0Mg4.0Y5.0/CeO2-ZrO2 (CAT 2), sequentially placed in the axial direction of the reformer length were used for full-scale tests. The O-2/C ratio was varied from 0.3 to 0.5 and the H2O/C ratio varied from 2 to 3.5, reaching temperatures in the interval of 700-800 degrees C. The hydrogen production and fuel conversion showed an upward trend from RME < DIN 590 < MK1 < FT with maximum 42 vol.% H-2 and 99% fuel conversion for FT diesel.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013. Vol. 210, 19-25 p.
Keyword [en]
Biodiesel, Hydrogen, Autothermal reforming, Multifuel study, APU
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-124959DOI: 10.1016/j.cattod.2012.11.009ISI: 000320696500004Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84878675927OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-124959DiVA: diva2:638795
Conference
2nd International Symposium of Catalysis for Clean Energy and Sustainable Chemistry (CCESC), 2012, Alcobendas, Spain
Note

QC 20130802

Available from: 2013-08-02 Created: 2013-08-02 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. RhPt and Ni based catalysts for fuel reforming in energy conversion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>RhPt and Ni based catalysts for fuel reforming in energy conversion
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Although current trends in global warming are of great concern, energy demand is still increasing, resulting in increasing pollutant emissions. To address this issue, we need reliable renewable energy sources, lowered pollutant emissions, and efficient and profitable processes for energy conversion. We also need to improve the use of the energy, produced by existing infrastructure. Consequently, the work presented in this thesis aims at investigating current scientific and technological challenges in energy conversion through biomass gasification and the alternative use of fossil fuels, such as diesel, in the generation of cleaner electricity through auxiliary power units in the transport

sector. Production of chemicals, syngas, and renewable fuels is highly dependent on the development and innovation of catalytic processes within these applications. This thesis focuses on the development and optimization of catalytic technologies in these areas. One of the limitations in the commercialization of the biomass gasification technology is the effective catalytic conversion of tars, formed during gasification. Biomass contains high amounts of alkali impurities, which pass on to the producer gas. Therefore, a new material with alkali tolerance is needed.

In the scope of this thesis, a new catalyst support, KxWO3 – ZrO2 with high alkali resistance was developed. The dynamic capability of KxWO3 – ZrO2 to store alkali metals in the crystal structure, enhances the capture of alkali metals "in situ". Alkali metals are also important electronic promoters for the active phase, which usually increases the catalysts activity and selectivity for certain products. Experimental results show that conversion of 1-methylnaphathalene over Ni/KxWO3 – ZrO2 increases in the presence of 2 ppm of gas-phase K (Paper I). This support is considered to contribute to the electronic equilibrium within the metal/support interface, when certain amounts of alkali metals are present. The potential use of this support can be extended to applications in which alkali "storage-release" properties are required, i.e. processes with high alkali content in the process flow, to enhance catalyst lifetime and regeneration.

In addition, fundamental studies to understand the adsorption geometry of naphthalene with increasing temperature were performed in a single crystal of Ni(111) by STM analyses. Chapter 9 presents preliminary studies on the adsorption geometry of the molecule, as well as DFT calculations of the adsorption energy. In relation to the use of clean energy for transport applications, hydrogen generation through ATR for FC-APUs is presented in Papers II to V. Two promoted RhPt bimetallic catalysts were selected in a previous bench scale study, supported on La2O3:CeO2/d – Al2O3 and MgO : Y2O3/CeO2 – ZrO2. Catalyst evaluation was performed in a fullscale reformer under real operating conditions. Results showed increased catalyst activity after the second monolithic catalyst due to the effect of steam reforming, WGS reaction, and higher catalyst reducibility of the RhxOy species in the CeO2 – ZrO2 mixed oxide, as a result of the improved redox properties. The influence of sulfur and coke formation on diesel reforming was assessed after 40 h on stream. Sulfur poisoning was evaluated for the intrinsic activity related to the total Rh and Pt area observed after exposure to sulfur. Sulfur concentration in the aged catalyst washcoat was observed to decrease in the axial direction of the reformer. Estimations of the amount of sulfur adsorbed were found to be below the theoretical equilibrated coverage on Rh and Pt, thus showing a partial deactivation due to sulfur poisoning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. xii, 100 p.
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2015:10
Keyword
RhPt bimetallic catalysts, Ni catalysts, ceria-zirconia, potassium tungsten bronze, zirconium dioxide, autothermal reforming, biodiesel, diesel, sulfur, deactivation, tar reforming, steam reforming, biomass gasification, auxiliary power units, naphthalene
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-160026 (URN)978-91-7595-440-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-03-05, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stokcholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20150213

Available from: 2015-02-13 Created: 2015-02-12 Last updated: 2015-11-23Bibliographically approved

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