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Biomechanical factors in the biology of aortic wall and aortic valve diseases
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
2013 (English)In: Cardiovascular Research, ISSN 0008-6363, E-ISSN 1755-3245, Vol. 99, no 2, 232-241 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The biomechanical factors that result from the haemodynamic load on the cardiovascular system are a common denominator of several vascular pathologies. Thickening and calcification of the aortic valve will lead to reduced opening and the development of left ventricular outflow obstruction, referred to as aortic valve stenosis. The most common pathology of the aorta is the formation of an aneurysm, morphologically defined as a progressive dilatation of a vessel segment by more than 50% of its normal diameter. The aortic valve is exposed to both haemodynamic forces and structural leaflet deformation as it opens and closes with each heartbeat to assure unidirectional flow from the left ventricle to the aorta. The arterial pressure is translated into tension-dominated mechanical wall stress in the aorta. In addition, stress and strain are related through the aortic stiffness. Furthermore, blood flow over the valvular and vascular endothelial layer induces wall shear stress. Several pathophysiological processes of aortic valve stenosis and aortic aneurysms, such as macromolecule transport, gene expression alterations, cell death pathways, calcification, inflammation, and neoangiogenesis directly depend on biomechanical factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2013. Vol. 99, no 2, 232-241 p.
Keyword [en]
Abdominal aortic aneurysm, Aortic stenosis, Inflammation, Thoracic aortic aneurysm
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-125555DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvt040ISI: 000321062400003Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84879971673OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-125555DiVA: diva2:640049
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2011-2988EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, HEALTH F2-2008-200647
Note

QC 20130812

Available from: 2013-08-12 Created: 2013-08-09 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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