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An Integrated Fluid-Chemical Model Toward Modeling the Formation of Intra-Luminal Thrombus in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Biomechanics. (vascuMECH)
Mechanics Division, National Institute of Metrological Research, Turin, Italy.
Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Biomechanics.
2012 (English)In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 3, no 266Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) are frequently characterized by the presence of an Intra-Luminal Thrombus (ILT) known to influence their evolution biochemically and biomechanically. The ILT progression mechanism is still unclear and little is known regarding the impact of the chemical species transported by blood flow on this mechanism. Chemical agonists and antagonists of platelets activation, aggregation, and adhesion and the proteins involved in the coagulation cascade (CC) may play an important role in ILT development. Starting from this assumption, the evolution of chemical species involved in the CC, their relation to coherent vortical structures (VSs) and their possible effect on ILT evolution have been studied. To this end a fluid-chemical model that simulates the CC through a series of convection-diffusion-reaction (CDR) equations has been developed. The model involves plasma-phase and surface-bound enzymes and zymogens, and includes both plasma-phase and membrane-phase reactions. Blood is modeled as a non-Newtonian incompressible fluid. VSs convect thrombin in the domain and lead to the high concentration observed in the distal portion of the AAA. This finding is in line with the clinical observations showing that the thickest ILT is usually seen in the distal AAA region. The proposed model, due to its ability to couple the fluid and chemical domains, provides an integrated mechanochemical picture that potentially could help unveil mechanisms of ILT formation and development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 3, no 266
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-125750DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2012.00266ISI: 000209173000260Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84866444131OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-125750DiVA: diva2:640475
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2006-7568VINNOVA
Note

QC 20130813

Available from: 2013-08-13 Created: 2013-08-13 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Physics of blood flow in arteries and its relation to intra-luminal thrombus and atherosclerosis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physics of blood flow in arteries and its relation to intra-luminal thrombus and atherosclerosis
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Vascular pathologies such as Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) and atherosclerosis are complex vascular diseases involving biological, mechanical, and fluid-dynamical factors. This thesis follows a multidisciplinary approach and presents an integrated fluid-chemical theory of ILT growth and analyzes the shear-induced migration of red blood cells (RBCs) in large arteries with respect to hypoxia and its possible role in atherosclerosis. The concept of Vortical Structures (VSs) is employed, with which a theory of uid-chemically-driven ILT growth is formulated. The theory proposes that VSs play an important role in convecting and activating platelets in the aneurysmatic bulge. In particular, platelets are convected toward the distal aneurysm region inside vortex cores and are activated via a combination of high residence times and relatively high shear stress at the vortex boundary. After vortex breakup, platelets are free to adhere to the thrombogenic wall surface. VSs also convect thrombin, a potent procoagulant enzyme, captured in their core, through the aneurysmatic lumen and force its accumulation in the distal portion of the AAA. This framework is in line with the clinical observation that the thickest ILT is usually seen in the distal AAA region. The investigation of the fluid-dynamics in arteries led to the study of the shear-induced migration of RBCs in large vessels such as the abdominal aorta and the carotid artery. Marked RBCs migration is observed in the region of the carotid sinus and in the iliac arteries, regions prone to atherogenesis. This leads to the hypothesis that oxyhemoglobin availability can decrease in the near-wall region thus contributing to wall hypoxia, a factor implicated in atherosclerosis. The thesis proposes a new potential mechanism of ILT growth, driven by fluid and chemical stimuli, which can be used to study ILT progression over physiologically relevant timeframes and be used as a framework to test new hypotheses; the thesis also provides new insights on the oxyhemoglobin availability in the near-wall region with direct inuence on atherosclerosis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. 43 p.
Series
Trita-HFL. Report / Royal Institute of Technology, Solid Mechanics, ISSN 1654-1472 ; 0546
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-125810 (URN)978-91-7501-836-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-08-22, sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130813

Available from: 2013-08-13 Created: 2013-08-13 Last updated: 2013-08-13Bibliographically approved

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